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研究生:洪瑞嬴
研究生(外文):Hung, Juiying
論文名稱:異質性無線感測網路的叢集層次之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Study Of Hierarchical Clustering Of Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks
指導教授:陳啟彰陳啟彰引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chen, Chichang
口試委員:陳啟彰張燕光廖冠雄
口試委員(外文):Chen, ChichangChang, YeimkuanLiaw, Guanhsiung
口試日期:2012-07-24
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:義守大學
系所名稱:資訊工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:65
外文關鍵詞:Wireless Sensor NetworksHeterogeneous Wireless Sensor NetworksRouting ProtocolClustering Hierarchy
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無線感測網路(Wireless Sensor Networks)的運作是由許多的感測節點所組成,感測節點收集資料,經由無線網路傳送到基地台。由於一般無線感測網路一旦佈署好後,感測節點的電池便不易更換。因此,在無線感測網路的研究中,如何減少感測節點的能量消耗,達到延長無線感測網路的壽命是一項非常重要的議題。
先前對於減少能量消耗繞徑(routing)的相關研究中,以叢集式(clustering)架構最為常見。在同質與異質環境中,現有的叢集演算法大多在叢集拓撲圖內外都形成一次跳躍(hop),其中每一個叢集頭節點可以直接傳輸至處理中心。因此,不適用於大範圍地區佈署的網路。所以本論文的目的是要為異質無線感測網路構建低耗能、多層次的叢集層級。透過本研究提出GHCM (Group Hierarchial Clustering Method) 的方法,將無線感測網路分佈的範圍做固定式分割成若干個大小相同的正六邊形叢集區域。基於每個節點的權重選舉機率,從而根據每個節點的剩餘能量形成叢集頭,然後利用此演算法,生成一種多級層次控制的叢集頭選擇方法。最後模擬結果GHCM比LEACH延長了5.7倍網路存活的時間,顯示我們的改良層次叢集方法在延長網路壽命方面更佳有效。
A wireless sensor network consists of a large number of sensor nodes which can collect sensed data and transmit them to the base station by wireless communication. When the sensor nodes are deployed, the batteries of sensor nodes are usually difficult to replace. Therefore, minimizing the energy consumption and maximizing the network lifetime become a key challenge to design the WSN protocols.
Clustering structures are the most common architectures for energy efficient routing protocol. Moreover, most of the existing clustering algorithms for heterogeneous and homogeneous environments use one hop transmission for both intra and inter cluster transmission, i.e. each cluster head can transmit directly to the base station. Consequently, it is not applicable to networks deployed in large regions. In this thesis, we aim to build an energy-efficient multi-level clustering hierarchy for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks. Adapting these approaches, we propose GHCM(Group Hierarchial Clustering Method), divide the network into several regular hexagonal region of the same size. Each hexagonal region forms a cluster. The wireless sensor network selects the cluster heads of each cluster according to the residual energy of the cluster sensor nodes. This mechanism also applies to the second level of clusters. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate that our hierarchical clustering approach is more effective in prolonging the network life time. According to our experiments, GHCM prolong the network lifetime 5.7 times than that of LEACH.
摘要1
目錄5
圖目錄7
第一章 緒論9
1-1 無線感測網路的簡介9
1-2 無線感測網路各種應用14
1-3 章節概要16
第二章 相關研究17
2-1 研究動機17
2-2 資料傳送方式19
2-3 路由協定21
2-4 研究背景26
2-4-1 異質WSN的層次模型26
2-4-2 設置階段28
2-4-3 穩定狀態階段29
2-5 無線感測節點無縫幾何排列31
第三章 異質性節點的叢集層級35
3-1 叢集大小問題描述35
3-2 研究方法與步驟36
3-3 資料傳輸階段39
第四章 實驗結果與分析41
4-1 模擬環境設定42
4-2 實驗結果分析45
第五章 結論61
參考文獻62
圖目錄
圖1 無線感測網路示意圖10
圖2 一般網路直接傳送20
圖3 叢集網路直接傳送20
圖4 一般網路多重跳躍傳輸21
圖5 叢集網路多重跳躍傳輸21
圖6 中繼節點的二階層式網路架構25
圖7 多級叢集拓撲圖27
圖8 正三角形擺放31
圖9 正方形擺放31
圖10 正六邊形擺放32
圖11 正三角形擺放增加面積32
圖12 正方形擺放增加面積32
圖13 正六邊形擺放33
圖14 正六邊形區塊劃分37
圖15 合併區塊37
圖16 叢集區塊38
圖17 一階無線電模組說明圖44
圖18 600個感測節點45
圖19 n=600存活節點平均數量隨時間變化46
圖20 n=600基地台接收平均封包量隨時間變化47
圖21 n=600整個感測網路總能量隨時間變化48
圖22 1000個感測節點50
圖23 n=1000存活節點平均數量隨時間變化51
圖24 n=1000基地台接收平均封包量隨時間變化52
圖25 n=1000整個感測網路總能量隨時間變化53
圖26 高級節點不同存活節點平均數量隨時間變化55
圖27 高級節點不同基地台接收平均封包量隨時間變化56
圖28 高級節點不同整個感測網路總能量隨時間變化57
圖29 傳輸半徑不同存活節點平均數量隨時間變化58
圖30 傳輸半徑不同基地台接收平均封包量隨時間變化59
圖31 傳輸半徑不同整個感測網路總能量隨時間變化60
中文部份
[1]張圻毓、陳啟彰,“無線感測節點無縫幾何排列”, 2010資訊技術應用及管理研討會, 高雄, 台灣, Jun. 2010.
英文部份
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[3]E. Woodrow , W. Heinzelman, “SPIN-IT: A Data Centric Routing Protocol for Image Retrieval in Wireless Networks”, Proc. International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP ’02),pp.913-916, 9, 2002.
[4]G. J. Pottie , W. J. Kaiser , “Wireless integrated network sensors”, Communications of the ACM, Vol . 43 ,No. 5 , pp. 51-58, 2000.
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[6]I.F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam and E. Cayirci, “A Survey on Sensor Networks”, IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 40, No. 8, pp. 102-114, 2002.
[7]I.F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam and E. Cayirci, “Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey”, Computer Networks Journal, No. 38, pp. 393-422, 2002.
[8]J. Ibriq, I. Mahgoub,“Cluster-Based Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks: Issues and Challenges.”, Proceedings of ACM Telecommunication, pp.759-766, 2004.
[9]J.N. Al-Karaki, A.E. Kamal,“Routing techniques in wireless sensor networks : a survey”, Wireless Communications, IEEE, Vol. 11, No. 6, pp. 6-28, 2004.
[10]Johnson , D. A. Maltz, “Dynamic Source Routing in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks”, in Mobile Computing, pp. 153–181 ,1996.
[11]K. Jain, M. Mahdian, and A. Saberi, “A New Greedy Approach for Facility Location Problems”, Proc. of the 34th Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing, pp. 731 – 740, 2002.
[12]L. Qing, Q. X. Zhu, and M. W. Wang, “Design of a distributed energy-efficient clustering algorithm for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks,” Journal on LSEVIER on Computer ommunications, Vol. 29, pp. 2230-2237, Issue 12, Aug. 2006.
[13]L. Qing, Q. X. Zhu, and M. W. Wang, “Design of a distributed energy-efficient clustering algorithm for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks,” ELSEVIER on Computer Communications, vol. 29, Issue: 12, pp. 2230-2237, Aug. 2006.
[14]M. Charikar , S. Guha, “Improved Combinatorial Algorithms for the Facility Location and k- Median Problems“, In FOCS, pp. 378–388, 1999.
[15]M.A. Mamuny, Y. Koi, N. Nakaya, Y. Hagihara,; G. Chakraborty, “HEHC: Heterogeneous-Aware Enhanced Hierarchical Clustered Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks”, SICE Annual Conference, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan, pp.1517-1522, 9, 2011.
[16]O. Younis and S. Fahmy,“HEED:A Hybrid, Energy-Efficient, Distributed Clustering Approach for Ad-hoc Sensor Networks”, IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, Vol .3, No. 4, pp. 366-379, 2004.
[17]S. Hussain, A.W Matin, “Hierarchical cluster-based routing in wireless sensor networks”, In:Proc. of IEEE/ACM Conf. on Info. Processing in Sensor Nets, pp.1-2, 2006.
[18]S. Lindsey, C. S. Raghavendra, "PEGASIS: Power-Efficient Gathering in Sensor Information Systems," Proceedings of ICC’01 , pp.1125-1130, 2001.
[19]S.V. Manisekaran, Dr.R. Venkatesan,“Energy Efficient Hierarchical clustering for sensor networks,” Second International conference on Computing, Communication and Networking Technologies, pp.1-11, July. 2010
[20]W. B. Heinzelman, P. Chandrakasan, and H. Balakrishnan, “An application-specific protocol architecture for wireless micro sensor networks” ,IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 660-670,10, 2002.
[21]W. R. Heinzelman, A. P. Chandrakasan, and H. Balakrishnan, “An application-Specific Protocol Architecture for Wireless Microsensor Networks,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 1, Issue: 4, pp. 660-670, Oct. 2002.
[22]W.R Heinzelman, A. Chandrakasan, and H. Balakrishnan,“Energy-efficient Communication Protocol for Wireless Microsensor Networks” , in proc. 33rd Hawaii International Conf. on System Sciences, vol. 2, pp. 1-10, 2000.
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