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研究生:朱永健
研究生(外文):CHU YUNG CHIEN
論文名稱:兩岸員工組織承諾比較分析之研究
論文名稱(外文):Comparative analysis of cross-strait employees' organizational commitment
指導教授:傅振瑞傅振瑞引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄應用科技大學
系所名稱:資訊管理系碩士在職專班
學門:電算機學門
學類:電算機一般學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:67
中文關鍵詞:兩岸員工、社會交換理論、關係投資模式、組織承諾套裝軟體回收率持續性情感性忠誠度
外文關鍵詞:cross-strait employees, social exchange theory, the relationship between investment patterns and organizational commitmentmainlandAND
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台灣加入WTO以及兩岸簽定經濟合作架構協議(Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement;ECFA)後,台商赴大陸的投資活動已蔚為趨勢,兩岸經貿往來更是頻繁,由於過去兩岸政治、經濟、文化與意識形態等明顯差異以及等環境截然不同的背景下,兩岸員工對於各項企業管理活動的認知與感受差異較大,但自大陸開放及兩岸經貿往來至今,這些年來歷經大陸經濟起飛以及金融海嘯洗滌的經濟環境變遷下,兩岸對管理活動的認知與感受是否還有所不同,值得探討,讓企業能即時掌握員工心態的轉變,並藉由不同的管理方式來加強員工組織承諾,使員工願意為組織效力。
本研究依社會交換理論(social exchange theory)所發展出的關係投資模式以及認知投資員工成長(Perceived investment in employee development)」的概念為基礎,再加上個人對改善家計的認知,來探討兩岸員工組織承諾的影響程度與差異,以利企業作為改善員工工作滿足的感受以及對組織的承諾,並降低員工離職意圖,減少招募及訓練員工成本。
本研究採用問卷調查法,問卷內容包含工作滿意度、關係投資、替代方案吸引力、認知投資員工成長、改善家計認知、情感性承諾、持續性承諾、規範性承諾等八個構面。本研究以兩岸員工為研究對象,採各行業隨機取樣的方式,共發出510份問卷,回收有效問卷500份,有效回收率為98%。問卷所得資料使用SPSS統計套裝軟體進行敘述性統計分析,再以Visual PLS(Partial Least Squares)統計軟體做為結構模型統計分析工具。本研究的結論歸納如下:
1.兩岸員工在整體的工作滿意度、對組織關係的投資程度、對組織投資員工成長的認知以及組織承諾等構面的知覺情形與感受程度有顯著之差異。
2.兩岸員工在研究假說的檢定
根據研究數據顯示,台灣與大陸員工在整體工作滿意度和情感性承諾之間、關係投資和持續性承諾之間、認知投資員工成長和工作滿意度、持續性承諾以及改善家計認知和規範性承諾等之間均呈正向顯著關係,表示兩岸員工在整體工作滿意的程度越高時,對於組織的心理認同程度就會越高,越會依附與支持組織;員工對組織關係投資的程度越高時,員工與組織間的關係維持程度就會越高,也會選擇持續留在組織內;對於組織投資員工成長的認知程度越高時,其工作的滿意程度就會越高,對組織的向心力也會隨之提高、以及與組織的關係維持程度會越高,也會願意持續維持與組織之關係;對於改善家計的認知程度越高時,就會增加員工對組織的忠誠度,覺得應該留在組織。
3.兩岸員工在各構念因果關係的差異檢定
根據差異分析檢定數據顯示,兩岸員工在替代方案和持續性承諾之間以及認知投資員工成長和情感性承諾之間呈顯著差異,表示台灣員工在有可供選擇的工作替代方案情況下,其吸引程度越高,與組織維持關係的程度與意願就會越低,就會選擇離開這個關係,相對的大陸員工則不會因為有可供選擇的其他工作替代方案下,其吸引程度越高時,就會對組織關係的維持程度變低,反而選擇需要與願意持續留在組織內;另大陸員工會因為組織投資員工成長的認知程度越高,心理對組織的認同程度也會隨之提高,會想要留在組織,相對的台灣員工則不會因為認知到組織投資員工成長的程度越高,而對組織的心理認同程度越高以及想要留在組織的意願變高。
After Taiwan’s accession to the WTO and both sides of Taiwan strait- Taiwan and mainland China, signed a trade agreement known as the Economic Co-operation Framework Agreement (ECFA), to do investments in mainland China has becomed a trend for Taiwan businessmen, and trade exchanges between two sides are more and more frequent. Owing to significant difference of politics, economy, culture and awareness between two sides, and totally different background of the environment, the cognition and feeling about the enterprise management activities are very different for cross-strait employees. However,ever since the open of the mainland China and starting of cross-strait economic and trade exchanges, and the transition of economical situation following the mainland's economic take-off as well as the financial tsunami, it is worthwhile to explore whether the cognition and feelings on the management activities are still different for cross-strait employees, so that enterprises can immediately grasp the changing mentality of the staff, and to strengthen the employees' organizational commitment by management, and then the employees will be willing to work for your organization.
This study was based on the “Relationship between Investment Mode “ and “Perceived Investment in Employee Development” which were developed from “Social Exchange Theory” and my perception about improvement of family livelihood to explore how organizational commitment affect the working performance and difference of cross-strait employees, to facilitate the enterprise to improve employee’s feelings of job satisfaction and commitment to the organization, and to reduce staff turnover intent, and also reduce recruiting and training staff costs.
Questionnaire was the way of survey used in this study. The questionnaire includes job satisfaction, the relationship between investments, the attraction of alternatives, perceived investment in employee development, the cognition of improving family livelyhood, the effective commitment, the continuity of commitment, normative commitment to the eight dimensions. The object of this study is the cross-strait employees from various industries who were selected by random sampling approach. A total of 510 questionnaires were distributed and 500 valid questionnaires, the effective recovery rate is 98%. The data collected from questionnaire was analyzed with the SPSS statistical package for descriptive statistical analysis, and then using Visual PLS (Partial Least Squares) statistical software to do structural model of statistical analysis. The conclusions of this study are summarized as follows:
1. No significant differences between the staff of Taiwan and mainland China on the perception of the situation in each construct, which displays the perception toward organization and management activities from the staff of mainland China has markedly improved after trading exchange with Taiwan for many years.
2. It is showing that the higher the degree of job satisfaction, the higher the degree of psychological identification of the organization will be for cross-strait employee; and the higher the degree of perception toward organisional investment on the growth of cross-strait staff, the relationship between employees and organizations will be maintained at the higher degree; the higher the degree of perception toward improvement of family livelihood, the higher the degree of the loyalty of cross-strait employees to the organization will be.
3. The higher the degree of attraction in alternatives, the lower the degree of maintenance of organizational relationships will be for Taiwan employees, but it’s not the same as that of mainland China’s employees; the higher the degree of perception toward organizational investment on the growth of cross-strait staff, the relationship between employees and organizations will be maintained at the higher degree for mainland China’s employees, but it’s not the same as that of Taiwan organization.
摘要 I
ABSTRACT III
目錄 VI
圖目錄 VIII
表目錄 IX
第1章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景與動機 1
1.2 研究目的 3
1.3 論文架構 3
1.4 研究流程 3
第2章 文獻探討 5
2.1 社會交換理論與投資模式 5
2.1.1 社會交換理論 5
2.1.2 投資模式 6
2.2 認知投資員工成長 8
2.3 工作滿意度的定義及相關理論 10
2.3.1 工作滿意的定義 10
2.3.2 工作滿意度的相關理論 13
2.3.3 工作滿足的衡量 17
2.4 組織承諾的定義及相關理論 18
2.4.1 組織承諾的定義 18
2.4.2 組織承諾的相關理論 21
2.4.3 組織承諾的衡量 24
2.5 改善家計認知 24
第3章 研究方法 26
3.1 研究架構與研究假設 26
3.1.1 研究架構 26
3.1.2 研究假設 27
3.2 研究對象 30
3.3 變數操作型定義與衡量工具 30
3.3.1 自變數的定義與操作化 31
3.3.2 應變數的定義與操作化 34
3.3.3 基本資料 36
3.4 研究設計 36
3.4.1 問卷設計 36
3.4.2 問卷測試 37
3.5 資料分析方法 38
3.5.1 敘述性統計分析 39
3.5.2 獨立樣本t 檢定 39
3.5.3信度與效度分析 39
3.5.4結構模型及統計分析 39
第4章 資料分析與結果 40
4.1 樣本描述 40
4.2 量表之效度與信度分析 42
4.2.1 內容效度分析 42
4.2.2 建構效度分析 42
4.2.3 信度分析 44
4.3 研究變項分析 45
4.4 研究假說之檢定 46
4.4.1 台灣員工研究假說相關檢定 47
4.4.2 大陸員工研究假說相關檢定 48
4.5 研究假說結果 49
4.6 台灣與大陸員工差異性檢定 49
第5章 結論與建議 51
5.1 研究結論 51
5.2 學術貢獻與管理意涵 52
5.2.1 學術上貢獻 52
5.2.2 管理意涵 52
5.3 研究限制 52
5.4 未來研究建議 53
文獻參考 54
壹、中文文獻 54
貳、英文文獻 55
附錄本研究問卷 61
附錄一:中文繁體問卷 61
附錄二:中文簡體問卷 64
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