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研究生:鄧翔心
研究生(外文):Hsiang-Hsin Teng
論文名稱:小型螢幕閱讀視覺績效探究
論文名稱(外文):A study of the visual performance of small screens
指導教授:閻建政閻建政引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chien-Cheng Yen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:銘傳大學
系所名稱:商品設計學系碩士班
學門:設計學門
學類:綜合設計學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:150
中文關鍵詞:視覺疲勞度閱讀績效智慧型手機
外文關鍵詞:reading performancesmart mobile phonevisual fatigue
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隨著科技的發達,人們使用手機接收及閱讀資訊現已成為一種普遍的方式。本研究以智慧型手機為研究工具,針對兩種極性(陽性、陰性)、三種字型(標楷體、細明體、中黑體)、三種字級(8級字、10級字、12級字)、三種行距(0.5倍行高、單行行高、1.5倍行高)、及三種字距(0pt、0.5pt、1pt),透過田口方法不同年齡層之使用者在三種閱讀情境(坐、站、行進)下的閱讀績效(搜尋正確率)及視覺績效(疲勞度)進行探究,期能從中歸納萃取出最適合使用者閱讀之設計因子組合,提供設計人員或廠商做為小型顯示器在資訊呈現設計時之參考,進而規劃出更符合使用者需求之資訊呈現設計。結果顯示:(1)年齡確實是影響閱讀搜尋績效及視覺疲勞度的一個重要變項,且閱讀搜尋績效會隨著年齡之增加而遞減,視覺疲勞度卻會隨著年齡之增加而遞增;(2)閱讀情境亦是影響閱讀搜尋績效及視覺疲勞度的一個重要變項,坐姿在各方面均較立姿及行進間為佳,立姿又較行進間為佳(3)極性、字型、字級、行距、及字距均會對閱讀搜尋績效及視覺疲勞度產生一定影響;(4)對各年齡層言,靜態文本最佳設計因子組合為:極性陽性、字型中黑體、字級12級字、行距0.5倍行高、字距1pt;(5)對19歲以下年齡層言,靜態文本最佳設計因子組合為:極性陽性、字型中黑體、字級12級字、行距0.5倍行高、字距0.5pt;(6)對20-39歲年齡層言,靜態文本最佳設計因子組合為:極性陽性、字型中黑體、字級12級字、行距單行行高、字距1pt;(7)對40-59歲年齡層言,靜態文本最佳設計因子組合為:極性陽性、字型中黑體、字級12級字、行距單行行高、字距1pt;(8)對60歲以上年齡層言,靜態文本最佳設計因子組合為:極性陽性、字型細明體、字級12級字、行距單行行高、字距0.5pt。
With the development of the technology, it has been an ordinary way for people to receive and read information through the mobile phones. Taking the smart phone as the research tool, this study explores the reading performance (correct rate of search)and visual performance (visual fatigue) of the users at different ages under three reading circumstances (sitting, standing and walking) based on two polarities (positive and negative), three fonts (Kai-T, Ming-Light and Hei-Medium), three font sizes (8, 10 and 12pt), three line spacings (0.5, 1 and 1.5) as well as three character spacings (0pt, 0.5pt and 1pt) with the Taguchi Method, in hope to figure out the most suitable design factors combination for the users to read and to offer a reference to the designers or the manufacturers of small monitor at the design of “information presentation” so as to create a information presentation design more suitable for users’ demands. The study concludes the following results: 1. Age is an important variable affecting the reading searching performance and the visual fatigue. Moreover, the reading searching performance will decrease with the increase of age while visual fatigue will increase with the increase of age; 2. The reading situation is also a significant variable which affects reading searching performance and visual fatigue. The sitting posture is better than the standing and walking postures in all aspects while the standing is better than the walking posture; 3. Several variables can make certain influence on the reading searching performance and the visual fatigue, such as polarity, font, character size, line spacing and character spacing. 4. For all ages, the best design factor combinition of the static text is the positive polarity in Hei-Medium with 12pt font size, 0.5 line spacing and 1pt in character spacing. 5. For the people under 19 years old, the best design factor combination of the static text is a positive polarity in Hei-Medium with 12pt font size, 0.5 line spacing and 0.5pt in character spacing. 6. For the people at age of 20 to 39, the best design factor combination of the static text is a positive polarity in Hei-Mediumwith 12pt font size, single line spacing and 0.5pt in character spacing. 7. For the people at age of 40 to 59, the best design factor combination of the static text is a positive polarity in Hei-Medium with 12pt font size, single line spacing and 1pt in character spacing. 8. For the people over 60 years old, the best design factor combination of the static text is a positive polarity in Ming-Light with 12pt font size, single line spacing and 0.5pt in character spacing.
目 錄

論文題目........................................................................................I
論文口試委員審定書................................................................................II
誌謝.....................................................................................III
中文摘要...................................................................................................IV
英文摘要...........................................................................................V
目 錄.......................................................................................................VII
圖目錄............................................................X
表目錄............................................................XI

第壹章 緒論.................................................................................................................1
第一節 研究背景與動機............................................................................1
第二節 研究目的與重要性..........................................................................2
第三節 研究範圍與限制...............................................................................3
第四節 論文架構 .......................................................................................4

第貳章 文獻探討...............................................................................................................5
第一節 資訊顯示...................................................................................5
一、極性........................................................................6
二、字型................................................................................6
三、字級........................................................................8
四、行距.........................................................................9
五、字距...........................................................................9
第二節 閱讀理解績效....................................................................10
一、閱讀的定義...............................................................10
二、閱讀理解的定義....................................................11
三、影響閱讀理解的因素..................................................11
第三節 視覺疲勞............................................................................14
一、視覺疲勞原因..........................................................14
二、視覺疲勞衡量指標....................................................15
三、疲視覺疲勞量表.........................................................16
第四節 年齡對腦力及視力的影響...............................................17
一、高齡化定義............................................................17
二、高齡者的腦力變化...............................................17
三、高齡者的視覺變化................................................17
第五節 田口方法.......................................................................19
一、田口方法概述......................................................................19
二、品質損失..............................................................20
三、品質特性分類與S/N比...........................................21
四、田口直交表.........................................................24
五、近直交表...........................................................27

第参章 研究方法...............................................................................................31
第一節 受測者.........................................................................................32
第二節 實驗設計....................................................................................32
一、測試文本資料..................................................................31
二、實驗設備...........................................................................33
三、實驗內容............................................................................34
四、實驗流程.................................................................................36
五、結果統計分析................................................................................36

第肆章 整體實驗結果與...........................................................................................38
第一節 整體實驗結果與分析...................................................................38
一、整體閱讀情境下各因子之搜尋績效S/N比之平均數與變異數分析...........................................................................................41
二、整體閱讀情境下各因子之疲勞度S/N比之平均數與變異數分析........................................................................................42
三、整體閱讀情境下各因子之完成測試所花時間S/N比之平均數與變異數分析.......................................................................44
第二節 坐姿閱讀情境之實驗結果與分析...................................................45
一、坐姿閱讀情境下各因子之搜尋績效S/N比之平均數與變異數分析......................................................................................48
二、坐姿閱讀情境下各因子之疲勞度S/N比之平均數與變異數分析...............................................................................................49
三、坐姿閱讀情境下各因子之完成測試所花時間S/N比之平均數與變異數分析............................................................................50
四、坐姿閱讀情境下不同年齡層之分析...................................52
(一) 19歲以下之年齡層............................................52
(二) 20至39歲之年齡層.......................................56
(三) 40至59歲之年齡層.......................................60
(四) 60歲以上之年齡層..........................................64
第三節 站姿閱讀情境之實驗結果與分析.............................................68
一、站姿閱讀情境下各因子之搜尋績效S/N比之平均數與變異數分析..........................................................................................71
二、站姿閱讀情境下各因子之疲勞度S/N比之平均數與變異數分析...........................................................................................72
三、站姿閱讀情境下各因子之完成測試所花時間S/N比之平均數與變異數分析.....................................................................73
四、站姿閱讀情境下不同年齡層之分析...................................75
(一) 19歲以下之年齡層.................................................75
(二) 20至39歲之年齡層..........................................79
(三) 40至59歲之年齡層.........................................83
(四) 60歲以上之年齡層............................................87
第四節 行進間閱讀情境之實驗結果與分析..........................................91
一、行進間閱讀情境下各因子之搜尋績效S/N比之平均數與變異數分析................................................................................94
二、行進間閱讀情境下各因子之疲勞度S/N比之平均數與變異數分析..............................................................................................95
三、行進間閱讀情境下各因子之完成測試所花時間S/N比之平均數與變異數分析...................................................................97
四、行進間閱讀情境下不同年齡層之分析...........................98
(一) 19歲以下之年齡層...................................................98
(二) 20至39歲之年齡層..........................................102
(三) 40至59歲之年齡層........................................106
(四) 60歲以上之年齡層..........................................110

第伍章 結論與建議..................................................................................................116
第一節 結論............................................................................................116
第二節 建議.................................................................................................128

參考文獻 ....................................................................................................129
中文文獻........................................................................................................129
英文文獻..........................................................................................................131

附錄...............................................................................................................................135


圖目錄

圖2-1:L a(bc) 直交表之涵義....................................................25
圖3-1:研究流程圖....................................................................31
圖3-2:測試文本例示.................................................................33
圖3-3:本研究所採用之HTC Desire2智慧型手機.................34
圖4-1:搜尋正確數S/N比回應圖............................................42
圖4-2:疲勞度之S/N比回應圖.................................................43
圖4-3:完成測試所花時間之S/N比回應圖...............................45
圖4-4:搜尋正確數S/N比回應圖..............................................48
圖4-5:疲勞度之S/N比回應圖..................................................49
圖4-6:完成測試所花時間之S/N比回應圖..................................51
圖4-7:搜尋正確數S/N比回應圖...............................................72
圖4-8:疲勞度之S/N比回應圖....................................................73
圖4-9:完成測試所花時間之S/N比回應圖...................................74
圖4-10:搜尋正確數S/N比回應圖..........................................................95
圖4-11:疲勞度之S/N比回應圖..........................................................96
圖4-12:完成測試所花時間之S/N比回應圖......................................98



表目錄

表2-1:品質特性損失函數與S/N比........................................................................23
表2-2:L8(27)直交表..........................................................................................................25
表2-3:一般常見的直交表系列...................................................................................26
表2-4:直交表選擇之建議.............................................................................................27
表2-5:L18(21x38)近直交表.............................................................................................28
表2-6:L36(21x316)近直交表............................................................................................29
表2-7:L12(21x35)近直交表..............................................................................................30
表2-8:L24(21x311)近直交表............................................................................................30
表3-1:本研究所採之近直交表型式..........................................................................35
表3-2:本研究所採之近直交表實驗因子組合........................................................35
表4-1:受測者資料.............................................................................................................38
表 4-2:整體閱讀情境下不同因子水準之搜尋績效、疲勞度、及完成測試所花時間.........................................................................................................................39
表 4-3:整體閱讀情境下不同因子水準之搜尋績效............................................40
表 4-4:整體閱讀情境下不同因子水準之搜尋正確數、疲勞度、完成測試所花時間之S/N比......................................................................................................40
表 4-5:各因子水準對照表.............................................................................................41
表 4-6:整體閱讀情境下各因子之搜尋正確數之平均S/N比..................42
表4-7:整體搜尋正確數S/N比變異數分析結果.........................................42
表4-8:整體閱讀情境下各因子之疲勞度之平均S/N比............................43
表4-9:整體疲勞度S/N比變異數分析結果...................................................44
表 4-10:整體閱讀情境下各因子之完成測試所花時間之平均S/N比........45
表 4-11:整體時間S/N變異數分析表........................................................................45
表4-12:坐姿閱讀情境下不同因子水準之搜尋績效、疲勞度、及完成測試所花時間..............................................................................................................46
表 4-13:坐姿閱讀情境下不同因子水準之搜尋績效........................................47
表4-14:坐姿閱讀情境下不同因子水準之搜尋正確數、疲勞度、完成測試所花時間之S/N比..............................................................................................47
表 4-15:坐姿閱讀情境下各因子之搜尋正確數之平均S/N比....................48
表 4-16:坐姿閱讀S/N變異數分析表...................................................................49
表 4-17:坐姿閱讀情境下各因子之疲勞度之平均S/N比...........................50
表 4-18:坐姿疲勞度S/N變異數分析表.............................................................50
表 4-19:坐姿閱讀情境下各因子之完成測試所花時間之平均S/N比..51
表4-20:坐姿閱讀時間S/N變異數分析表.........................................................52
表4-21:19歲以下,坐姿閱讀情境下不同因子水準之搜尋績效、疲勞
度、及完成測試所花時間....................................................................................53
表 4-22:19歲以下,坐姿閱讀情境下不同因子水準之搜尋正確數、疲勞度、完成測試所花時間之S/N比..........................................................................54
表 4-23:19歲以下,坐姿閱讀情境下各因子之搜尋正確數及疲勞度之平均S/N比.............................................................................................................55
表 4-24:19歲以下,坐姿整體搜尋正確數及疲勞度S/N比變異數分析結果............................................................................................................56
表4-25:20至39歲,坐姿閱讀情境下不同因子水準之搜尋績效、疲勞度、及完成測試所花時間......................................................................................57
表4-26:20至39歲,坐姿閱讀情境下不同因子水準之搜尋正確數、疲勞度、完成測試所花時間之S/N比..........................................................................58
表4-27:20至39歲,坐姿閱讀情境下各因子之搜尋正確數及疲勞度之平均S/N比..........................................................................................................................59
表4-28:20至39歲,坐姿閱讀情境下搜尋正確數及疲勞度S/N比之變異數分析結果..............................................................................................................60
表4-29:40至59歲,坐姿閱讀情境下各測試狀況之搜尋績效、疲勞度、及完成測試所花時間......................................................................................................61
表4-30:40至59歲,坐姿閱讀情境下各測試狀況之搜尋正確數、疲勞度、完成測試所花時間之S/N比...........................................................................................62
表4-31:40至59歲,坐姿閱讀情境下各因子之搜尋正確數及疲勞度之平均S/N比..........................................................................................................63
表4-32:40至59歲,坐姿搜尋正確數及疲勞度S/N比變異數分析結果.....................................................................................................................64
表 4-33:60歲以上,坐姿整體閱讀情境下各測試狀況之搜尋績效、疲勞度、及完成測試所花時間.................................................................................................65
表 4-34:60歲以上,坐姿閱讀情境下各測試狀況之搜尋正確數、疲勞度、完成測試所花時間之S/N比..............................................................................66
表 4-35:60歲以上,坐姿閱讀情境下各因子之搜尋正確數及疲勞度之平均S/N比.................................................................................................................67
表4-36:60歲以上,坐姿搜尋正確數及疲勞度S/N比變異數分析結果................................................................................................................................68
表4-37:站姿閱讀情境下各測試狀況之搜尋績效、疲勞度、及完成測試所花時間...................................................................................................................................69
表4-38:站姿閱讀情境下不同因子水準之搜尋績效、疲勞度、及完成測試所花時間................................................................................................................70
表4-39:站姿閱讀情境下各測試狀況之搜尋正確數、疲勞度、完成測試所花時間之S/N比.........................................................................................................70
表4-40:站姿閱讀情境下各因子之搜尋正確數之平均S/N比......................71
表4-41:站姿閱讀情境下搜尋正確數S/N比之變異數分析結果.........................72
表4-42:站姿閱讀情境下各因子之疲勞度之平均S/N比................................73
表4-43:站姿疲勞度S/N比變異數分析結果........................................................73
表4-44:站姿閱讀情境下各因子之完成測試所花時間之平均S/N比….74
表4-45:站姿閱讀時間S/N變異數分析表.............................................................75
表4-46:19歲以下年齡層在站姿閱讀情境下各測試狀況之搜尋績效、疲勞度、及完成測試所花時間..................................................................................76
表4-47:19歲以下年齡層在站姿閱讀情境下各測試狀況之搜尋正確數、疲勞度、完成測試所花時間之S/N比..................................................................77
表4-48:19歲以下年齡層在站姿閱讀情境下各因子之搜尋正確數及疲勞度之平均S/N比......................................................................................................78
表4-49:19歲以下,站姿搜尋正確數及疲勞度S/N比之變異數分析結果..79
表4-50:20至39歲,站姿閱讀情境下各測試狀況之搜尋績效、疲勞度、及完成測試所花時間..................................................................................80
表4-51:20至39歲,站姿閱讀情境下各測試狀況之搜尋正確數、疲勞度、完成測試所花時間之S/N比................................................................................81
表4-52:20至39歲,站姿閱讀情境下各因子之搜尋正確數及疲勞度之平均S/N比.........................................................................................................82
表4-53:20至39歲,站姿搜尋正確數及疲勞度S/N比變異數分析結果...........................................................................................................................83
表4-54:40至59歲,站姿閱讀情境下不同因子水準之搜尋績效、疲勞度、及完成測試所花時間......................................................................................................84
表4-55:40至59歲,站姿閱讀情境下不同因子水準之搜尋正確數、疲勞度、完成測試所花時間之S/N比................................................................................85
表4-56:40至59歲,站姿閱讀情境下各因子之搜尋正確數及疲勞度之平均S/N比..........................................................................................................................86
表4-57:40至59歲,站姿搜尋正確數及疲勞度S/N比之變異數分析結果................................................................................................................................................87
表4-58:60歲以上年齡層在站姿閱讀情境下各測試狀況之搜尋績效、疲勞度、及完成測試所花時間................................................................................88
表4-59:60歲以上年齡層在站姿閱讀情境下各測試狀況之搜尋正確數、疲勞度、完成測試所花時間之S/N比.................................................................89
表4-60:60歲以上,站姿閱讀情境下各因子之搜尋正確數及疲勞度之平均S/N比.........................................................................................................................90
表 4-61:60歲以上,站姿搜尋正確數及疲勞度S/N比變異數分析結果....91
表4-62:行進間閱讀情境下不同因子水準之搜尋績效、疲勞度、及完成測所花時間......................................................................................................................92
表 4-63:行進間閱讀情境下不同因子水準之搜尋績效、疲勞度、及完成測試所花時間.................................................................................................................93
表4-64:行進間閱讀情境各測試狀況之搜尋正確數、疲勞度、完成測試所花時間之S/N比................................................................................................93
表4-65:行進間閱讀情境下各因子之搜尋正確數之平均S/N比...................94
表4-66:行進閱讀下搜尋正確數S/N變異數分析表.............................................95
表4-67:行進間閱讀情境下各因子之疲勞度之平均S/N比............................96
表4-68:疲勞度S/N比變異數分析結果.....................................................................96
表4-69:行進間閱讀情境下各因子之完成測試所花時間之平均S/N比....97
表4-70:完成測試所花時間S/N變異數分析...........................................................98
表4-71:19歲以下年齡層在行進間閱讀情境下各測試狀況之搜尋績效、疲勞度、及完成測試所花時間.....................................................................................99
表4-72:19歲以下年齡層在行進間閱讀情境下各測試狀況之搜尋正確數、疲勞度、完成測試所花時間之S/N比.............................................................100
表4-73:19歲以下年齡層在行進間閱讀情境下各因子之搜尋正確數及疲勞度之平均S/N比..........................................................................................................101
表4-74:19歲以下年齡層在行進間閱讀情境下搜尋正確數及疲勞度S/N比之變異數分析結果.....................................................................................................102
表4-75:20至39歲年齡層在行進閱讀情境下各測試狀況之搜尋績效、疲勞度、及完成測試所花時間.........................................................................................103
表4-76:20至39歲年齡層在行進閱讀情境下各測試狀況之搜尋正確數、疲勞度、完成測試所花時間之S/N比.........................................................................104
表4-77:20至39歲年齡層在行進閱讀情境下各因子之搜尋正確數及疲勞度之平均S/N比..................................................................................................................105
表 4-78:20至39歲年齡層在行進閱讀情境下搜尋正確數及疲勞度S/N比之變異數分析結果...................................................................................................106
表4-79:40至59歲年齡層在行進閱讀情境下各測試狀況之搜尋績效、疲勞度、及完成測試所花時間..................................................................................107
表4-80:40至59歲年齡層在行進閱讀情境下各測試狀況之搜尋正確數、疲勞度、完成測試所花時間之S/N比...................................................................108
表4-81:40至59歲年齡層在行進閱讀情境下各因子之搜尋正確數及疲勞度之平均S/N比.......................................................................................................109
表4-82:40至59歲年齡層在行進閱讀情境下搜尋正確數及疲勞度S/N比變異數分析結果............................................................................................................110
表 4-83:60歲以上年齡層在行進閱讀情境下各測試狀況之搜尋績效、疲勞度、及完成測試所花時間.............................................................................................111
表 4-84:60歲以上年齡層在行進閱讀情境下各測試狀況之搜尋正確數、疲勞度、完成測試所花時間之S/N比.........................................................................112
表 4-85:60歲以上年齡層在行進閱讀情境下各因子之搜尋正確數及疲勞度之平均S/N比............................................................................................113
表4-86:60歲以上年齡層在行進閱讀情境下搜尋正確數及疲勞度S/N比變異數分析結果............................................................................................................114
表5-1:各種閱讀狀況及年齡層下之最佳閱讀績效因子組合..........118
表5-2:各因子對閱讀績效之影響程度...............................................120
表5-3:各種閱讀狀況及年齡層下之最佳視覺績效因子組合..........123
表5-4:各因子對視覺績效之影響程度................................................125
表5-5:最佳閱讀速度之因子組合........................................................126
表5-6:各因子對閱讀速度之影響程度................................................127
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