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研究生:范綱軒
論文名稱:風力發電昇壓型轉換器最大功率追蹤控制器之研製
論文名稱(外文):Design and Implementation of a Maximum-Power-Point-Tracking Controller for Wind-Turbine Generator with Boost Converter
指導教授:蔡明發蔡明發引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:明新科技大學
系所名稱:電機工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:77
中文關鍵詞:垂直軸風力發電機最大功率追蹤電壓控制器FPGA
外文關鍵詞:vertical-axis-wind-turbine generatorsMPPTvoltage controllerFPGA
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本文研製一風力發電昇壓型轉換器最大功率追蹤控制器,搭配垂直軸風力發電機將輸出之電能儲存於36V蓄電池中。採用最大功率追蹤查表法做為風力發電機輸出之最大功率追蹤方法,於最大功率點之功率,輸出一最大功率點之電壓命令,利用電壓回授控制調整轉換器之開關責任週期,即可得到最大功率輸出。控制器採用PI控制器設計,得出昇壓轉換器小訊號模型推導出轉移函數並設計電壓控制器,以改善系統暫態與穩態響應,並利用PSIM模擬軟體建構風力發電機與昇壓型轉換器之模型,模擬其最大功率追蹤及電壓迴路控制器,驗證控制器功能正確性。
本文以數位控制設計實現,系統採用FPGA數位控制IC,以VHDL程式撰寫,先以PSIM與Simulink結合ModelSim之共同模擬驗證閉迴路穩定性,最後下載至Altera Cyclone控制晶片,於實驗測量當中,驗證系統可行性。

This thesis presents the design and implementation of a maximum-power-point-tracking (MPPT) controller for Wind-Turbine Generator with Boost Converter. The Converter is connected to a 36V battery to supply power to a DC load and equipped the vertical-axis-wind-turbine generators on the traffic vehicles. The system uses the maximum-power-point table-loook-up method to get the maximum output power of the wind turbine generation system with fast tracking speed is proposed. A voltage controller with the reference voltage command from the MPPT scheme is then designed based on the small signal equivalent modeling of a boost DC-DC converter.
The MPPT scheme and voltage controller has been verified in the MATLAB/Simulink PSIM, and ModelSim cosimulation environment and the digital control circuit design in VHDL hardware description language has been implemented on an Altera Cyclone FPGA logic device.

摘 要............................................................................................................................i
Abstract ........................................................................................................................ii
誌 謝......................................................................................................................... iii
目 錄..........................................................................................................................iv
圖目錄..........................................................................................................................vi
表目錄....................................................................................................................... viii
第1 章 緒論..................................................................................................................1
1.1 背景與動機.....................................................................................................1
1.2 研究目的與方法.............................................................................................2
1.3 論文貢獻.........................................................................................................3
1.4 論文組織結構.................................................................................................4
第2 章 風力發電原理與最大功率追蹤方法..............................................................5
2.1 風力發電原理.................................................................................................5
2.2 風力發電機種類.............................................................................................7
2.3 風力發電機模擬方塊建構.............................................................................9
2.4 開迴路功率響應..........................................................................................10
2.5 最大功率追蹤控制方法...............................................................................13
第3 章 小訊號等效電路模型與電壓控制器設計....................................................16
3.1 昇壓型轉換器小訊號模型推導.................................................................16
3.2 電壓控制器設計..........................................................................................19
3.3 控制器模擬驗證..........................................................................................22
3.4 最大功率追蹤電壓控制器模擬.................................................................24
3.5 風速變化模擬...............................................................................................28
第4 章 數位控制電路設計與模擬............................................................................29
4.1 數位控制電路設計.......................................................................................29
4.1.1 除頻器與倍頻器設計........................................................................30
4.1.2 A/D 轉換器.........................................................................................31
4.1.3 MPPT 控制.........................................................................................32
4.1.4 數位電壓控制器................................................................................33
4.1.5 PWM 產生器......................................................................................35
4.2 PSIM、Simulink 與Modelsim 共同模擬....................................................36
第5 章 硬體電路與實驗結果....................................................................................40
5.1 硬體電路實現...............................................................................................40
5.1.1 風場模擬機構、風力發電機及蓄電池組........................................41
5.1.2 三相二極體整流器及昇壓型轉換器電路........................................43
v
5.1.3 電壓、電流感測器............................................................................44
5.1.4 功率電晶體隔離驅動電路................................................................46
5.1.5 電源電路............................................................................................47
5.1.6 FPGA 控制板.....................................................................................48
5.2 風力發電機功率曲線量測.........................................................................48
5.3 最大功率追蹤實測結果.............................................................................49
5.3.1 固定風場實測....................................................................................49
5.3.2 實際風場實測....................................................................................51
第6 章 結論與未來研究方向....................................................................................54
6.1 結論...............................................................................................................54
6.2 未來研究方向...............................................................................................55
參考文獻.....................................................................................................................56
附錄.............................................................................................................................59
作者簡介.....................................................................................................................64
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