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研究生:阮俠方
研究生(外文):Nguyen Hiep Phuong
論文名稱:一種電磁式人工肌肉的開發
論文名稱(外文):Development of a New Electromagnetic Muscle
指導教授:李志鴻李志鴻引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chih-Hung Li
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:明新科技大學
系所名稱:精密機電工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2011
畢業學年度:100
語文別:英文
論文頁數:100
中文關鍵詞:N/A
外文關鍵詞:Artificial muscleelectromagnetfinite element methodelastomeric springANSYS
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Nowadays, artificial muscles are produced for purposes, which are adapted for natural muscles or applications in robotics. Artificial muscle is a contractile organ that actuates forces and motions. Normally, artificial muscles are created by several methods such as pneumatic artificial muscles, piezoelectric actuators, electroactive polymer artificial muscles (EPAMs), shape memory alloy actuators, etc. Generally, there still remain some disadvantages about low stability, high price, high electricity consumption, and nonlinear control. Therefore, the purpose of this thesis is to present a new method to create and develop artificial muscles that is called “Electromagnetic muscle”
Basically, the new electromagnetic muscle operates using attractive force between two electromagnets and the elasticity of elastomeric spring. Especially, according this method, the stability of electromagnetic muscle depends on the elasticity of rubber and certainly it is very stable. In addition, one can adjust the resilience of the artificial muscle by changing the elastomeric spring models. The elastomeric spring models could be analyzed by application of finite element method.
In this method, ANSYS software is applied to design and analyze the elastomeric spring models. After the analyzing process, we would obtain the deformed shape and stress results which help us to create and choose the best solution of corresponding spring model for the required electromagnetic muscle. Base on them, we could create elastomeric spring molds to produce elastomeric springs, perform some experiments to compare the real elastomeric springs with ANSYS design models. Furthermore, the electromagnetic muscle will be produced.

ABSTRACT I
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT II
TABLE OF CONTENTSIII
LIST OF FIGURESV
LIST OF TABLES VIII
NOMENCLATUREIX
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 References from electromagnetic muscle 3
1.3 The idea of a new artificial muscle 4
1.4 Purpose of research 12
1.5 Research Steps 12
CHAPTER 2 THEORY AND MEASUREMENT OF ELECTROMAGNETS 15
2.1 Electromagnet15
2.1.1 Theory of electromagnet 15
2.1.2: Prototypes of the electromagnets 21
2.2 Measurements 23
2.2.1: Design of apparatus for force measurement using force gauge 23
2.2.2 Measured attractive forces as function of electrical current: 30
2.3 Theoretical equations 32
2.3.1 Theoretical derivation 33
2.3.2 Comparison of the theory and the measurements .38
CHAPTER 3 DESIGN AND SIMULATION OF ELASTOMERIC SPRING 41
3.1 Design of nonlinear spring 41
3.1.1 Rubber elasticity 41
3.1.2 Proposed design of elastomeric springs 43
3.2 Simulation of spring action 44
3.2.1 Finite element modeling (ANSYS) 45
3.2.2 Result discussion 47
CHATER 4: PROTOTYPE OF THE MUSCLE SYSTEM 63
4.1 Design and fabrication 63
4.1.1 Prototype of the elastomeric spring 63
4.1.2 Design of the electromagnetic muscle system 69
4.2 Testing operation of the system 72
4.3 Experiment results and discussion: 73
CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK 79
5.1 Conclusions 79
5.2 Future work. 80
REFERENCE 81
APPENDIX I 83

[1] Gautschi, “Piezoelectric Sensorics: Force, Strain, Pressure, Acceleration and Acoustic Emission Sensors, Materials and Amplifiers”, Springer, 2002.
[2] Frank Daerden, Dirk Lefeber, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, “Pneumatic Artificial Muscles: actuators for robotics and automation”, Proceedings Cat No01TH8556, Pages:
738-743, published by Ieee, 2001.
[3] K. Otsuka, C.M. Wayman, “Shape Memory Materials”, ISBN 0521663849, published by the press syndicate of the Cambridge University, 1999.
[4] R. Asche Etal, “Electromagnetic Artificial Muscle”, Pages: 1-2, published by E.F.Henderoth, 1950.
[5] ANSYS Inc, “Multiphysics Analysis Electromagnetic Actuators (Solenoids)”, ANSYS Inc, 2011.
[6] International Conference of London, "The NIST reference on fundamental physical constants", Physics.nist.gov, 2009.
[7] Michael Fowler, “Historical Beginnings of Theories of Electricity and Magnetism”, 1997.
[8] Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, “The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language”, Fourth Edition copyright ©2000, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2009.
[9] Leandra Vicci, “Magnetic-flux conduits Vicci”, U.S. Patent, 2004.
[10] Ernest Lee, “Magnetic Flux through a Loop of Wire”, Wolfram Demonstrations Project, 2004.
[11] Joseph A. Edminister, “Schaum’s Outline of Theory and Problems of Electromagnetics”, 1995.
[12] Fr. Solenoide, "Solenoid", Online Etymology Dictionary, 2001.
[13] Gussow, “Schaum's Outline of Theory and Problems of Basic Electricity. New York”, Milton, 1983.
[14] J.A Brydson, “Rubbery Materials and their Compounds”, A. W. Birkley, 2007.
[15] Donald R. Askeland, Frank Haddleton, Phil Green, Howard Robertson, “The science and engineering of materials” (5th edition), Chapman &; Hall, 2006.
[16] Askeland, Donald R, Phulé, Pradeep, “ANSYS Parametric Design Language Guide”, PA15317, 2009.
[17] Gr. Fredrick, "Magnetic Fields and Forces", Gr. Fredrick, 2009.

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