(3.238.174.50) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/04/11 12:56
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:鐘弘達
研究生(外文):Chung hung Ta
論文名稱:由上而下因素對情緒刺激之注意力攫取的影響
論文名稱(外文):The influence of top-down factors on attentional capture of emotional stimuli
指導教授:黃淑麗黃淑麗引用關係
指導教授(外文):Huang Shwu Lih
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:心理學研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:心理學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:66
中文關鍵詞:由上而下因素由下而上歷程注意力攫取一致效果與情緒相關突顯程度
外文關鍵詞:top-down factorsbottom-up processingattentional capturecongruency effectemotion-relevancesaliency
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:178
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
過去的研究指出,具有威脅訊息的情緒臉孔會比正向情緒臉孔快速地吸引個體的注意力。視覺搜尋研究發現情緒臉孔的突顯程度會引發由下而上的注意力攫取,而由下而上的注意力攫取是否能夠被由上而下的因素所凌駕,一直是一個很重要的論爭,因此,本研究同時呈現兩種情緒臉孔,並以文字線索引發由上而下注意力選擇,以探討由上而下的因素是否能夠凌駕情緒臉孔之注意力攫取,並比較不同情緒臉孔攫取注意力的強度。實驗一探討文字線索是否能夠幫助注意力搜尋目標情緒臉孔。實驗二使用一致效果當作注意力攫取指標,探討當臉孔情緒與作業相關時,由上而下因素是否能夠凌駕干擾情緒臉孔為生氣臉孔或快樂臉孔之注意力攫取,以及比較生氣與快樂臉孔攫取注意力的強度。實驗三延續實驗二的研究,將臉孔情緒改為與作業無關,比較生氣臉孔與快樂臉孔攫取注意力的強度。實驗四與實驗二實驗程序相同,但增加倒立中性臉孔與生氣臉孔或快樂臉孔同時呈現情況,如此在以倒立中性臉孔為目標或干擾臉孔情況,可以比較生氣臉孔與快樂臉孔之由上而下因素注意力選擇與由下而上注意力攫取強度。本研究結果在大部分情況下並未獲得一致效果,顯示由上而下之注意力選擇會影響由下而上之情緒臉孔攫取注意力,使得干擾臉孔未能吸引注意力於其上。然而由下而上注意力攫取仍影響搜尋情緒臉孔的反應時間,結果顯示生氣臉孔與快樂臉孔競爭下,生氣臉孔的突顯程度大於快樂臉孔,說明生氣臉孔較快樂臉孔吸引注意力。
Previous studies using visual search task showed that the saliency of the emotional faces was sufficient to induce the bottom-up attentional capture. It is a critical debate that whether top-down factors can override bottom-up attentional capture. To address this issue, we presented two emotional faces at the same display while using word cues to induce top-down attentional selection. Experiment 1 investigated the effect of word cues on the target face searching. Using congruency effect as an index of attentional capture, Experiment 2 investigated whether top-down factors could override attentional capture of the emotional distractors when emotion is task-relevant and the degree of attentional capture of angry faces was compared with that of happy faces. In Experiment 3, face emotion was changed to be task-irrelevant rather than task-relevant, and the degree of attentional capture of angry and happy faces was also contrasted. In Experiment 4, the invert neutral face was included additionally as another target or distractor. We can use the invert neutral face as the common basis to dissociate the components of top-down attentional selection and bottom-up attentional capture, and contrast the attention effects between angry and happy faces in these two aspects independently. The results showed that congruency effect could not be found in most conditions. This implies that top-down attentional selection can influence the bottom-up attentional capture of emotional faces. But reaction time for searching target was still found to be influenced by bottom-up process. When an angry face competes with a happy face, the saliency of the angry face is higher than the happy face.
第一章、緒論..................................................................................................................1
第一節、前言..........................................................................................................1
第二節、研究動機..................................................................................................2
第二章、文獻探討..........................................................................................................4
第一節、威脅刺激的注意力歷程..........................................................................4
第二節、情緒臉孔之注意力研究..........................................................................6
第三節、由上而下與由下而上歷程之影響........................................................15
第四節、生氣或快樂臉孔吸引注意力................................................................21
第五節、研究問題................................................................................................24
第三章、研究方法.......................................................................................................27
第一節、實驗一...................................................................................................27
第二節、實驗二...................................................................................................32
第三節、實驗三...................................................................................................38
第四節、實驗四....................................................................................................43
第四章、綜合討論........................................................................................................50
第一節、由上而下因素的影響............................................................................50
第二節、臉孔情緒與作業無相關或無關之影響................................................53
第三節、生氣臉孔或快樂臉孔吸引注意力........................................................54
第四節、本研究貢獻與未來方向........................................................................55
第五章、結論................................................................................................................56
參考文獻......................................................................................................................57
附錄一:實驗同意書....................................................................................................62
附錄二:實驗一指導語................................................................................................63
附錄三:實驗二指導語................................................................................................64
附錄四:實驗三指導語................................................................................................65
附錄五:實驗四指導語................................................................................................66


Bacon, W. F., &; Egeth, H. E. (1994). Overriding Stimulus-Driven Attentional Capture. Perception &; Psychophysics, 55(5), 485-496.
Eastwood, J. D., Smilek, D., &; Merikle, P. M. (2001). Differential attentional guidance by unattended faces expressing positive and negative emotion. Perception &; Psychophysics, 63(6), 1004-1013.
Eriksen, B. A., &; Eriksen, C. W. (1974). Effects of Noise Letters Upon Identification of a Target Letter in a Nonsearch Task. Perception &; Psychophysics, 16(1), 143-149.
Folk, C. L., &; Remington, R. (1998). Selectivity in distraction by irrelevant featural singletons: Evidence for two forms of attentional capture. Journal of Experimental Psychology-Human Perception and Performance, 24(3), 847-858.
Folk, C. L., Remington, R. W., &; Johnston, J. C. (1992). Involuntary Covert Orienting Is Contingent on Attentional Control Settings. Journal of Experimental Psychology-Human Perception and Performance, 18(4), 1030-1044.
Fox, E., Lester, V., Russo, R., Bowles, R. J., Pichler, A., &; Dutton, K. (2000). Facial expressions of emotion: Are angry faces detected more efficiently? Cognition &; Emotion, 14(1), 61-92.
Fox, E., Russo, R., Bowles, R., &; Dutton, K. (2001). Do threatening stimuli draw or hold visual attention in subclinical anxiety? Journal of Experimental Psychology-General, 130(4), 681-700.
Fox, E., Russo, R., &; Dutton, K. (2002). Attentional bias for threat: Evidence for delayed disengagement from emotional faces. Cognition &; Emotion, 16(3), 355-379.
Frischen, A., Eastwood, J. D., &; Smilek, D. (2008). Visual search for faces with emotional expressions. Psychological Bulletin, 134(5), 662-676.
Georgiou, G. A., Bleakley, C., Hayward, J., Russo, R., Dutton, K., Eltiti, S., et al. (2005). Focusing on fear: Attentional disengagement from emotional faces. Visual Cognition, 12(1), 145-158.
Hahn, S., Carlson, C., Singer, S., &; Gronlund, S. D. (2006). Aging and visual search: Automatic and controlled attentional bias to threat faces. Acta Psychologica, 123(3), 312-336.
Hansen, C. H., &; Hansen, R. D. (1988). Finding the Face in the Crowd - an Anger Superiority Effect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(6), 917-924.
Horstmann, G., &; Bauland, A. (2006). Search asymmetries with real faces: Testing the anger-superiority effect. Emotion, 6(2), 193-207.
Huang, S. L., Chang, Y. C., &; Chen, Y. J. (2011). Task-Irrelevant Angry Faces Capture Attention in Visual Search While Modulated by Resources. Emotion, 11(3), 544-552.
Hunt, A. R., Cooper, R. M., Hungr, C., &; Kingstone, A. (2007). The effect of emotional faces on eye movements and attention. Visual Cognition, 15(5), 513-531.
Lammy, D., Amunts, L. &; Bar-Haim, Y. (2008) Emotional priming of pop-out in visual search. Emotion, 8(2), 151-161.
Leber, A. B., &; Egeth, H. E. (2006). It's under control: Top-down search strategies can override attentional capture. Psychonomic Bulletin &; Review, 13(1), 132-138.
Leppanen, J. M., &; Hietanen, J. K. (2004). Positive facial expressions are recognized faster than negative facial expressions, but why? Psychological Research-Psychologische Forschung, 69(1-2), 22-29.
Lipp, O. V., Price, S. M., &; Tellegen, C. L. (2009). Emotional faces in neutral crowds: Detecting displays of anger, happiness, and sadness on schematic and photographic images of faces. Motivation and Emotion, 33(3), 249-260.
Maljkovic, V., &; Nakayama, K. (2000). Priming of popout: III. A short-term implicit memory system beneficial for rapid target selection. Visual Cognition, 7(5), 571-595.
Miyazawa, S., &; Iwasaki, S. (2009). Effect of negative emotion on visual attention: Automatic capture by fear-related stimuli. Japanese Psychological Research, 51(1), 13-23.
Öhman, A., Flykt, A., &; Esteves, F. (2001). Emotion drives attention: Detecting the snake in the grass. Journal of Experimental Psychology-General, 130(3), 466-478.
Öhman, A., &; Mineka, S. (2001). Fears, phobias, and preparedness: Toward an evolved module of fear and fear learning. Psychological Review, 108(3), 483-522.
Pinto, Y., Olivers, C. N. L., &; Theeuwes, J. (2005). Target uncertainty does not lead to more distraction by singletons: Intertrial priming does. Perception &; Psychophysics, 67(8), 1354-1361.
Posner, M. I. (1980). Orienting of Attention. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 32(Feb), 3-25.
Posner, M. I., &; Cohen, Y. (1984). Components of Visual Orienting. Attention and Performance(10), 531-556.
Posner, M. I., &; Petersen, S. E. (1990). The attention system of the human brain. Annual Review Neuroscience, 13, 25-42.


Pourtois, G., Grandjean, D., Sander, D., &; Vuilleumier, P. (2004). Electro- physiological correlates of rapid spatial orienting towards fearful faces. Cerebral Cortex, 14(6), 619-633.
Purcell, D. G., Stewart, A. L., &; Skov, R. B. (1996). It takes a confounded face to pop out of a crowd. Perception, 25(9), 1091-1108.
Tanaka, J. W., &; Farah, M. J. (1993). Parts and Wholes in Face Recognition. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Section a-Human Experimental Psychology, 46(2), 225-245.
Theeuwes, J. (1991). Cross-dimensional perceptual selectivity. Perception Psychophysics, 50(2), 184-193.
Theeuwes, J. (1992). Perceptual selectivity for color and form. Perception Psychophysics, 51(6), 599-606.
Theeuwes, J. (1995). Perceptual selectivity for color and form: on the nature of the interference effect. In A. Kramer, G. D. Logan &; M. G. H. Coles (Eds.), Converging Operations in the Study of Visual Selective Attention (pp. 297-314). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Theeuwes, J. (2004). Top-down search strategies cannot override attentional capture. Psychonomic Bulletin &; Review, 11(1), 65-70.
Theeuwes, J., Reimann, B., &; Mortier, K. (2006). Visual search for featural singletons: No top-down modulation, only bottom-up priming. Visual Cognition, 14(4-8), 466-489.
Theeuwes, J., &; van der Burg, E. (2008). The role of cueing in attentional capture. Visual Cognition, 16(2-3), 232-247.
White, M. (1995). Preattentive Analysis of Facial Expressions of Emotion. Cognition &; Emotion, 9(5), 439-460.

Williams, M. A., Moss, S. A., Bradshaw, J. L., &; Mattingley, J. B. (2005). Look at me, I'm smiling: Visual search for threatening and nonthreatening facial expressions. Visual Cognition, 12(1), 29-50.
Wolfe,J.M.(1994).Guided search 2.0 : A revised model of visual search. Psychonomic Bulletin &; Review, 1(2), 202-238.
Wolfe, J. M. (1998). Visual search. In H. Pashler (Ed.), attention (pp. 13-73). London: University College London Press.
Yiend, J., &; Mathews, A. (2001). Anxiety and attention to threatening pictures. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Section a-Human Experimental Psychology, 54(3), 665-681.
Zajonc, R. B. (1980). Feeling and Thinking - Preferences Need No Inferences. American Psychologist, 35(2), 151-175.

連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔