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研究生:陳昌安
研究生(外文):JohanKristantama
論文名稱:室溫感控型空調之節能效益與熱舒適性分析
論文名稱(外文):Energy Saving and Thermal Comfort: Experimental Research on Distributed Environmental Sensing
指導教授:賴啟銘賴啟銘引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chi-Ming Lai
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:土木工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:英文
論文頁數:92
外文關鍵詞:Distributed environmental sensingEnergy savingThermal comfortHVACAir conditioner
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Global climate changes have resulted in extremely high temperature in summer and households are using air conditioning system for longer hours, which means greater electricity consumption. Considering those amounts, greater effort was devoted to make an expert energy saving system for the building, especially in HVAC issue, without neglecting thermal comfort aspect.
Observing the opportunity of integrating wireless network sensors into the return air temperature sensing system of current air conditioner unit, an improvement of HVAC system performance, especially air conditioning system was established in this research. Experimental research with two different treatments, single-point and multi-point analysis, has been conducted to demonstrate the usability of this concept. In the future, this concept will be recognized as Distributed Environmental Sensing DES in air conditioning system (DES-A/C). Moreover, an independent program to regulate the air conditioning start-stop cycle has been made in advance.
Three major levels of compressors work which represent full capacity, half capacity, and zero-state condition have been discovered with power consumption equal to, 0.79 kW, 0.4-0.55 kW, and 0.03 kW, respectively. By means of 3oC of effective temperature difference, it has been revealed that DES-A/C could save 43% energy compared to conventional A/C. In addition, DES-A/C could maintain the PPV index in satisfaction range (-1 〈 PMV 〈 +1) and PPD index no more than 27.5%.

ABSTRACT I
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS II
TABLE OF CONTENTS IV
LIST OF TABLES VII
LIST OF FIGURES VIII
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Building Performances: Energy Consumption. 1
1.2 Opportunity for Distributed Environmental Sensing (DES) Concept 2
1.3 Objectives. 3
1.4 Thesis Structure. 3
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 5
2.1 Introduction. 5
2.2 Wireless Network Sensors. 6
2.3 Air Conditioner Unit. 9
2.3.1 How Air Conditioner Work. 9
2.3.2 Development of Air Conditioning System. 10
2.3.3 Compressor Behavior. 12
2.4 Distributed Environmental Sensing (DES) for Controlling HVAC. 13
2.5 Temperature Limit. 15
2.6 Thermal Comfort. 16
2.6.1 Introduction to Thermal Comfort. 16
2.6.2 PMV – PPD Index. 17
2.6.3 Heat Conduction through the Clothing, Kcl. 22
2.6.4 Metabolism. 23
2.6.5 Acceptable Thermal Environments for Comfort. 24
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 26
3.1 Introduction. 26
3.1.1 Experimental Space Design. 26
3.1.2 Air Conditioner Unit. 28
3.1.3 Power Meter. 29
3.1.4 Wireless Network Sensors. 30
3.1.5 Thermocouple. 33
3.1.6 IES-2000 (Indoor Quality Monitoring Machine). 34
3.1.7 Controller Module. 36
3.2 Experimental Scheme. 37
3.3 Experimental Procedure. 38
3.3.1 Experiment 1. 39
3.3.2 Experiment 2. 44
CHAPTER FOUR RESEARCH RESULTS 52
4.1 Compressor Performance. 52
4.1.1 Compressors Work. 52
4.1.2 Temperature Difference, TD. 55
4.2 Energy Saving and Thermal Comfort. 57
4.2.1 Single Point Analysis. 57
4.2.2 Multi-Point Analysis. 73
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS 88
REFERENCES 91

Albert, S. (2009). Is PMV suitable for measuring human thermal comfort? Paper presented at the CIBSE Technical Seminar, Dongguan, PRC.
Aprea, C., Mastrullo, R., & Renno, C. (2009). Determination of the compressor optimal working conditions. Journal of Applied Thermal Engineering, 29, 1991-1997.
ASHRAE. (1997). ASHRAE Handbook – Fundamentals. Atlanta, GA, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.
Choi, J. M., Kim, Y. C. (2003). Capacity modulation of an inverter-driven multi-air conditioner using electronic expansion valves. Journal of Energy, 28, 141-155.
Fanger P. O. (1973). Thermal Comfort. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company.
Grassnick R. (2001). Advantages of autonomous sensor systems for the control of distributed parameter systems: A case study for individual room control Retrieved April 20, 2012, from http://forschung.unibw-muenchen.de/papers/87sig4zlmpv7omtxukpztajhk6lfeh.pdf.
Hagler Bailly Consulting, Inc. (1998). Building commissioning: survey of attitudes and practices in Wisconsin. Energy Center of Wisconsin Report, 172-1. Retrieved on April 15, 2012, from http://www.ecw.org/ecwresults/172-1.pdf.
ISO 7730, Ergonomics of the thermal environment – Analytical determination and interpretation of thermal comfort using calculation of PMV and PPD indices and local thermal comfort criteria.
Lin, J. L., Yeh, T. J. (2007). Modeling, identification and control of air-conditioning systems. International Journal of Refrigeration, 30, 209-220.
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Nathan, K. O. (2007). The Application of Wireless Sensor Networks to Residential Energy Efficiency and Demand Response (Doctoral dissertation, The University of California, Berkeley, 2007). Dissertation Abstracts International, 68(08), 2007.
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Olesen, B. W. (1982). Thermal Comfort. 2nd ed. Bruel and Kjaer. Retrieved March 17,2012, from http://aldebaran.feld.cvut.cz/vyuka/environmental_engineering/lectures/L10%20Thermal%20Comfort.pdf.
Olken, F., Jacobsen, H. A., McParland, C., Piette, M. A., & Anderson, M. F. (1998). Object lesson learned from a distributed system for remote building monitoring and operation. ACM Sigplan Notices, 33(10), 284.
Ooi, K. T., Wong T. N. (1997). A computer simulation of a rotary compressor for household refrigerators. Journal of Applied Thermal Engineering, 17(1), 65-78.
Piette, M. A., Nordman, B., & Greenberg S. (1994). Quantifying energy savings from commissioning: preliminary results from the Pacific Northwest. Portland Energy Conservation, Inc., Paper presented at the Second National Conference on Building Commissioning.
Portland Energy Conservation, Inc. (1998). National Strategy for Building Commissioning. Portland, OR: Portland Energy Conservation, Inc.
Sporton T. M. (1972). The design of a general purpose air thermostat. Journal of Physics E: Scientific Instrument, 5, 317.
Zubair S. M., Bahel V. (1989). Compressor capacity modulation scheme. Journal of Heating, Piping, and Air Conditioning, 1, 135-143.

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