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研究生:呂文豪
研究生(外文):Wen-HaoLeu
論文名稱:施工品質監督與其組織程序效能
論文名稱(外文):Construction Quality Supervision and Organization Procedure Effectiveness
指導教授:張行道張行道引用關係
指導教授(外文):Andrew S. Chang
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:土木工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:160
中文關鍵詞:BOT施工品質監督組織與程序監造工作查(檢)驗監造人力
外文關鍵詞:BOTconstruction qualityquality organization and proceduresupervision worksupervision manpower
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:6
  • 點閱點閱:555
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:169
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
有人認為「品質是監督出來的」,所以大型工程不論是傳統發包或BOT,對承包商工作加以多重的監督組織與程序,要求監造增加檢驗停留點,但在實務上增加許多沒效率,品質不見得提昇。
本研究探討台灣的施工品質的監督與其組織程序的效能,指出不必要的規定或要求,期能有所改善。首先比較品質監督程度及組織程序,以傳統與BOT發包各五個工程為案例,訪談其政府業主、監造、承包商等共19次、44人。再問卷調查六個監造案例,得到5大項17細項監造作業之人時、成本及施工品質的查(檢)驗點,彙整及分析監督工作的程序文件及工作量。
比較北、高捷工程結果,施工品質沒有明顯差別,但高捷的實際監督程度高於北捷將近一倍,監督組織程序也比北捷複雜許多。受訪者皆認為「監督程度」對施工品質的影響大於「監督組織與程序」,此意涵BOT工程的品質監督要針對重點,簡化過度的文件及檢查。
監造工作調查、分析發現,工作項目時間花費依序是:查(檢)驗28.6%、督導27.5%、審查21.1%、提送文件16.2%、其他6.6%。監造的視需要工作量多,占59%,應降低至40%以下。現有品質文件量過多,占45%的時間,而應控制在30%以下。若三級品管規定、工程業主、文件量的要求適當,監造工作可省下50%的時間。業主對監造可責以施工(品質及進度)績效的適當責任。
工程品質監督制度的設計,應拿捏適當的監督程度,減少不必要的組織與程序,監造應該扮演配合角色,讓承包商發揮其能力、經驗,如此績效才易提昇。

Some people think that “construction quality comes from supervision.” Therefore, the contractors of Design-Bid-Build (DBB) or Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) projects are supervised with multiple organizations, procedures and inspection points. These additional supervisions increase inefficiency without necessarily improve construction quality.
This research explored construction quality supervision and the effectiveness of its organizations and procedures for infrastructure projects of Taiwan. First, the quality supervision degrees, organizations and procedures were collected from and compared between five DBB and five BOT construction projects to pinpoint adequate quality supervision. Interviews were conducted with the owners, contractors, designers, and concessionaire for 19 times with 44 participants in total. Second, the supervision jobs of six construction projects were surveyed to understand the supervision consultant’s time spending, cost and inspection points. The supervision work was divided into five categories and 17 activities to analyze its procedure paperwork and workload.
The research results show that the construction quality has no apparent difference for the DBB and BOT projects. But the supervision degree nearly doubled and organizations procedures were complicated for the BOT projects. The degree of quality supervision has larger influence on construction quality than supervision organization and procedures do. This indicates that construction supervision should address key points, and excessive inspection and paperwork should be simplified for BOT projects.
The average times the project supervision consultant’s spent on the five categories of activities were: inspection 28.6 %, supervision and direction 27.5%, review 21.1%, submitting documents 16.2%, and other activities 6.6%. The inconstant work took 59% of the total supervision time, which should be reduced to below 40%. The excessive paperwork should be reduced to 30% from existing 45%. If the requirements are adequate from quality control regulations, project owner and documentation, 50% of the supervision time can be saved. The supervision consultant should be accounted for certain responsibility for quality and schedule performance.
When designing a construction quality system, adequate supervision degree should be maintained; unnecessary supervision organizations and procedures are reduced; the supervision consultants play an assistance role; and let the contractor develop her ability and experience. Then the quality performance can be upgraded.

摘要 i
Abstract ii
致謝 iii
目錄 iv
圖目錄 viii
表目錄 x
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機 1
1.2 研究目的 2
1.3 研究方法 3
1.4 研究內容與流程 4
1.4.1 監督程度與組織程序 4
1.4.2 監造工作 6
1.4.3 研究流程 7
第二章 文獻回顧與現況探討 9
2.1 傳統及民間參與工程比較 9
2.1.1 民參工程之特性與差異 9
2.1.2 兩種發包工程之優缺點 10
2.2 施工品質與監督 12
2.2.1 品質缺失 12
2.2.2 品質管理制度 13
2.2.3 施工監造法規 15
2.2.4 監造缺失 16
2.3 美國及香港監造制度 17
2.3.1 美國監造制度 18
2.3.2 香港監造制度 19
2.3.3 香港與台灣監造制度比較 20
2.4 作業基礎成本制度 21
2.4.1 成本方法 21
2.4.2 制度之成效 22
第三章 工程品質監督調查 24
3.1 傳統與民參工程案例 24
3.1.1 台北捷運五個標案 24
3.1.2 高雄捷運五個標案 25
3.2 工程組織與程序 26
3.2.1 工程參與組織 26
3.2.2 品質監督組織與程序 28
3.3 品質監督過程與結果 29
3.3.2 北捷土建標A2 31
3.3.3 北捷機廠A 32
3.3.4 北捷軌道A 32
3.3.5 北捷無線電A 33
3.3.6 高捷業主及顧問 33
3.3.7 高捷土建標B1 34
3.3.8 高捷土建標B2 35
3.3.9 高捷機廠B 35
3.3.10 高捷軌道B 36
3.3.11 高捷無線電B 36
第四章 工程品質監督比較 38
4.1 品質監督比較 38
4.1.1 品質監督程度 38
4.1.2 品質監督組織與程序 40
4.1.3 施工品質 43
4.2 品質監督程度與程序比較結果之影響 43
4.2.1 監督程度因素 44
4.2.2 監督程序因素 47
4.3 品質監督之量化及影響 50
4.3.1 品質監督程度之量化 50
4.3.2 對施工品質之影響 51
第五章 監造工作性質時間花費調查 53
5.1 六個監造案例說明 53
5.1.1 計畫簡介 53
5.1.2 六個案例監造產值 54
5.2 監造工作項目分類 55
5.2.1 監造工作項目 55
5.2.2 監造工作項目彙整 56
5.3 道路C1監造工作調查 58
5.3.1 工作難度及頻率 58
5.3.2 時間花費、文件量及自評績效 60
5.4 道路C2監造工作調查 61
5.4.1 工作難度及頻率 61
5.4.2 文件量、時間花費及自評績效 63
5.5 鐵路C3監造工作調查 64
5.5.1 工作難度及頻率 64
5.5.2 文件量、時間花費及自評績效 66
5.6 港埠C4監造工作調查 67
5.6.1 工作難度及頻率 67
5.6.2 文件量、時間花費及自評績效 69
5.7 污水C5監造工作調查 70
5.7.1 工作難度及頻率 70
5.7.2 文件量、時間花費及自評績效 72
5.8 機場C6監造工作調查 73
5.8.1 工作難度及頻率 73
5.8.2 文件量、時間花費及自評績效 75
第六章 監造工作彙整分析比較 77
6.1 六案例彙整分析 77
6.1.1 工作難度 77
6.1.2 工作頻率 78
6.1.3 花費時間 80
6.1.4 工作文件量 84
6.1.5 監造自評績效 85
6.2 監造工作性質及時間 85
6.2.1 工作難度及頻率比較 85
6.2.2 輸入、過程及輸出階段時間花費 86
6.2.3 主管及工程師的作業分佈 87
6.3 監造細項作業數量及時間調查 88
6.3.1 提送文件 89
6.3.2 審查 89
6.3.3 查(檢)驗 90
6.3.4 督導 92
6.3.5 其他作業 93
6.3.6 單月與細項作業調查結果比較 94
6.4 監造作業成本 95
6.4.1 提送文件成本 95
6.4.2 審查成本 96
6.4.3 查(檢)驗成本 97
6.4.4 督導成本 98
6.4.5 其他成本 100
6.4.6 工作及文件成本比較 100
6.4.7 案例產值比較 102
第七章 監造人力分析 104
7.1 監造人力現況問卷 104
7.1.1 監造人力問卷訪談問題 104
7.1.2 監造人力的影響 105
7.1.3 監造工作建議 110
7.2 監造工作調整 112
7.2.1 查(檢)驗工作重要程度 113
7.2.2 工程品質監督調整 114
7.2.3 適當的文件量 115
7.3 政府業主適當作法 115
第八章 結論與建議 117
8.1 結論 117
8.1.1 監督程度與監督組織程序 117
8.1.2 監造工作分析結果 118
8.2 研究貢獻及後續研究 119
8.2.1 研究貢獻 119
8.2.2 後續研究 120
參考文獻 122
附錄一 訪談紀錄 128


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71.張行道等(民92),公共建設BOT計畫組織協調與工作整合-以高雄捷運工程為例,中華顧問工程司研究報告,計畫編號92946,12月。
72.張行道、呂文豪、林晉毅(民96),以捷運建設為例探討民間參與公共建設效能之初步研析,中華顧問工程司研究報告,計畫編號96967,12月。
73.張行道、呂文豪、林子晴、許祐寧(民100),監造人力需求分析與調整機制之建立,台灣世曦工程顧問股份有限公司研究報告,計畫編號00940,12月。
74.黃朗文譯(民88),Fowler, F. J. and Mangione, T. W.,著,標準化調查訪問,弘智文化出版,台北。
75.機關委託技術服務廠商評選及計費辦法,99年01月15日修正。

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