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研究生:盧裕文
研究生(外文):Yu-WenLu
論文名稱:綠建築成本分析與比較
論文名稱(外文):Cost analysis and comparison for green buildings
指導教授:張行道張行道引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shing-Tao Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:土木工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:129
中文關鍵詞:綠建築綠成本軟成本EEWH九大指標
外文關鍵詞:green buildingsgreen costsoft costEEWHnine indicators
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台灣推行綠建築十餘年,通過標章之建築多屬公有建築,民間建築參與不足,成本為一重要原因,而國內對於綠建築成本研究甚少。國外綠建築成本相關研究較多,但多是問卷調查總建築案例的成本增加,沒有細項組成,不易了解綠建築的成本變化行為。
本研究分析綠建築的成本並比較,以國內五個鑽石、黃金級綠建築為案例。綠建築增加軟和硬成本,軟成本在設計階段增加,又分為設計成本和計算文書成本,硬成本為施工階段多施作工項而產生。軟成本由訪談案例之建築師得到,詢問增加的時間百分比,並分配比例至設計及文書計算,並了解國內綠建築EEWH規定九大指標之設計難度。硬成本由分析個案詳細價目表中綠色工項得到,比較綠建築和傳統建築的工項數量、單價差異,計算硬成本變化。
研究發現各種綠建築成本變化不同。案例A、B、C學校類綠建築,強調日常節能之外殼節能設計,例如案例A主要工項為金屬屋面鋼板及其收邊材、防潮石膏天花板等,總計約735元/m2,其占35%軟成本(增加之時間),占80%硬成本(增加之金額);案例B主要工項為金屬外牆、水平垂直遮陽等,總計約844元/m2,其分別占35%軟成本、56%硬成本;案例E為住宅類綠建築,強調室內環境及CO2 減量,其主要綠色工項為木地板、石板磚、高性能混泥土、輕隔間,總計各約829元/m2、898元/m2,其中室內環境及CO2 減量分別占15%、3%軟成本及39%、43%硬成本。
四個案例綠成本平均為4.9%,其中設計4%,施工0.9%。以單位成本來看,綠成本平均1,395元/m2,設計270元/m2,施工1,125元/m2,由於案例少,平均數字僅供初步參考。
比較九大指標之成本與設計難度關係,硬成本與難度無明顯關係(r=0.38),軟成本與難度為高度相關(r=0.79)。另外,基於案例硬成本與設計難度,建立EEWH九大指標採用順序為:(1)日常節能、基地保水、廢棄物減量、水資源、汙水垃圾改善,(2)生物多樣性、綠化量,(3) CO2減量、室內環境。但實際採用順序,會依照案例不同而有所調整。

Green buildings have been implemented in Taiwan for more than ten years, but green costs are not understood well. Although the costs of green buildings have been studied in other countries, they are usually collected from questionaries for the total with certain percentages of cost increase. They do not have the costs of building components that would be difficult to understand the cost changes for green buildings.
This research analyzed and compared the costs of green buildings by using five case projects. Green buildings will incur soft cost and hard cost. Soft costs are incurred by the architects increasing their time consumption on design and documentation. Hard costs are increased from construction and analyzed from the line items of the Bill of Quantities of a project. The differences of line items, quantities and unit prices were compared between the green buildings and tradition ones. Then the percentages of hard costs are calculated.
The research findings show that the cost would be different for different green buildings. Cases A, B, and C are schools and they focus on energy saving of the building shell. For example, the major green measures of case A are metal roof plate and its sapwood, and moisture-proof gypsum ceiling for a total amount of 735 NTD/m2 ¬¬, and accounted for 35% of soft cost (total increased time) and 80% of hard costs (total increased money); the major green measures of case B are metal wall, horizontal and vertical shading for a total amount of 844 NTD/m2, and accounted for 35% of soft cost and 56% of hard costs.
The green cost of four green buildings increased 4.9% on average, in which the design cost inceased 0.9%, and the construction cost increased 4%. Also, the average green cost is 1,395 NTD/m2, the design cost increased 270 NTD/m2 and construction cost increased 1,125 NTD/m2. These average numbers are very preliminary because of limited cases.
Concerning the green cost and design difficulty of EEWH, it is found that hard cost is not much related to design difficulty (r=0.38), but soft cost and design difficulty are positively related (r=0.79). Moreover, based on the research of hard cost and design difficulty, the order of adopting EEWH indicators is suggested as follows: (1) Energy saving, Water retention, Waste reduction, Water resources and Sewage and garbage improvement, (2) Biodiversity and Greening, (3) CO2 reduction and Indoor environment. But the order can vary according to the project’s conditions.

摘要 i
Abstract ii
誌謝 iii
目錄 iv
圖目錄 vi
表目錄 viii
第一章 緒論 1
1.1研究動機與目的 1
1.2 研究方法與步驟 2
1.3 研究範圍 4
第二章 文獻回顧 5
2.1 綠建築評估制度 5
2.1.1主要綠建築評估系統 5
2.1.2 台灣綠建築制度 6
2.2綠色設計 9
2.2.1 節能技術 9
2.2.2 主動被動設計 11
2.3 綠建築效益 12
2.3.1 永續效益 12
2.3.2綠建築效益評估 13
2.3.3 利害關係人觀點 14
2.3.4 綠建築對房價的影響 15
2.4綠建築的阻礙與成本 16
2.4.1 綠建築的阻礙 17
2.4.2 綠建築成本 18
第三章 綠建築成本架構與內容 21
3.1 綠建築成本分類 21
3.1.1 初始成本與未來成本 21
3.1.2 綠建築軟硬成本 22
3.1.3 設計成本 23
3.1.4 計算文書成本 26
3.1.5 施工成本 26
3.2 影響成本因素與成本資料困難 27
3.2.1 影響成本因素 27
3.2.2 綠建築成本資料的困難 30
3.2.3 綠建築成本比較方法 31
第四章 案例成本變化 33
4.1 案例與綠建築設計策略 33
4.1.1 案例簡介 33
4.1.2綠建築設計策略 34
4.2 綠建築成本找出過程 40
4.2.1硬成本找出過程 41
4.2.2軟成本找出過程 44
4.3 案例綠建築設計與成本關係 47
4.3.1案例A 48
4.3.2案例B 60
4.3.3 案例C 62
4.3.4 案例D 64
4.3.5 案例E 66
4.4案例施工與使用效益 68
4.4.1綠建築工項施工 68
4.4.2 使用階段效益 69
第五章 案例成本比較分析 71
5.1 綜合成本比較分析 71
5.1.1 綠建築成本與用途比較 71
5.1.2 綠成本與九大指標關係 72
5.1.3 九大指標之硬成本 73
5.1.4 綠建築軟硬成本與標章等級關係 79
5.2 建立綠建築設計流程策略 81
5.2.1 設計難度與成本關係 81
5.2.2 建立九大指標採用順序 83
5.3 比較LEED與EEWH之可行性與成本評估 84
5.3.1 比較LEED與EEWH之異同 85
5.3.2 LEED與EEWH可行性與成本比較 85
第六章 結論 88
6.1 結論 88
6.2 建議 90
參考文獻 92
附錄一 訪談問題 95
附錄二 訪談紀錄 97
附錄三 案例綠色成本差異 116

英文文獻
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中文文獻
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