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研究生:楊忠漢
研究生(外文):Yohanes
論文名稱:鋼結構建築於不同火場擴散下之實例研究
論文名稱(外文):The Case Study of Steel Buildings under Various Travelling Fire Scenarios
指導教授:鍾興陽
指導教授(外文):Hsin-Yang Chung
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:土木工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:英文
論文頁數:269
中文關鍵詞:耐火鋼鋼構建築耐火性能擴散式火場後挫屈分析
外文關鍵詞:Fire-Resistant SteelSteel Framed BuildingFire-Resistant PerformanceTravelling FirePost Buckling Analysis
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  • 被引用被引用:1
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本研究以三維非線性有限元素程式來模擬一棟七層樓的鋼構大樓受擴散式火場侵襲時的結構行為。針對此鋼構大樓,本研究亦探討四種利用耐火鋼配置於不同梁柱系統的高溫補強策略,利用此四種高溫補強策略分別補強後的鋼構大樓與原未補強的鋼構大樓,將受到各種擴散式火場的測試,藉以評估各種高溫補強策略的耐火表現。原未補強的鋼構大樓乃依照2005年AISC-LRFD規範與台灣耐震規範所設計,而用來測試的擴散式火場總共有七種,包含四種水平式擴散火場和三種垂直式擴散火場,而此七種火場將分別測試五棟七層樓的鋼構大樓,此五棟鋼構大樓在幾何尺寸與構件尺寸皆相同,其中一棟為未用耐火鋼補強的普通鋼大樓,另外四棟大樓則分別利用四種高溫補強策略,以耐火鋼來進行高溫補強。在本研究中,每一種擴散式火場將以居室為單位,擴散至鄰近的居室,間隔10分鐘,在每一個著火的居室,空間內的所有結構桿件將受到CNS 12514 (ISO-834)的升溫曲線加溫。數值模擬結果顯示:擴散式火場中受熱的柱構件將受到額外的壓力作用,此額外的壓力來自受熱柱構件的膨脹效應與其他構件的束制效應,而此額外的壓力將隨著溫度的增加而增加柱的高溫挫屈強度,當達到柱的高溫挫屈強度後,此額外的壓力將降低並移轉至鄰近未破壞的柱構件,此外,數值模擬結果亦顯示:若本案例所研究的七層樓鋼構建築受到水平擴散式火場侵襲,其內柱全部使用耐火鋼將是最具成本效益的高溫補強策略,然而,若此鋼構建築受到由強軸向開燃的垂直擴散式火場侵襲時,其全部柱都使用耐火鋼將是最具成本效益的高溫補強策略。
This study utilized a three-dimensional nonlinear finite-element program to simulate the structural behavior of a seven-story steel framed building subjected to fire travelling within the building. This study also investigated four high-temperature strengthening strategies of allocating fire-resistant steel columns and beams in the seven-story steel framed building under various travelling fire scenarios in order to evaluate the fire-resistant performance of each strategy. The original seven-story steel framed building, not using any fire-resistant steel columns and beams, was designed according to the 2005 AISC-LRFD Specification and Taiwan’s Seismic Provisions. Seven travelling fire scenarios, including four horizontally travelling fire scenarios and three vertically travelling fire scenarios, were employed in this study to test the original steel building and the other four fire-resistant steel strengthened steel buildings. In each travelling fire scenario, fire spread compartment by compartment in the building with a time delay of 10 minutes. In each building compartment on fire, the structural components within the compartment were heated up using the CNS 12514 (ISO-834) temperature-time curve. The numerical simulation results showed that travelling fire caused additional compressive forces for the heated columns due to the thermal expansion effect from the heated columns and the restraint effect from the other structural elements. As the temperature increased, the compressive forces in the heated columns increased up to the high-temperature buckling loads. After reaching the buckling loads, the compression forces decreased and transferred to the adjacent columns that had not failed. The numerical simulation results also showed that using fire-resistant steel for the interior columns in our case study building under the horizontally travelling fire is the most cost-effective strategy. For the vertically travelling fire starting from the strong side of our case study building, using fire-resistant steel for all columns is the most cost-effective strategy.
ABSTRACT I
摘要 II
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT III
TABLE OF CONTENTS IV
LIST OF TABLES VII
LIST OF FIGURES X
NOMENCLATURE XVII
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1. Background 1
1.2. Research Objectives 2
1.3. Research Methods 2
1.4. Structure of Thesis 3
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 5
2.1. Steel Structure Behavior at High Temperatures 5
2.1.1. Study on Structural Members 5
2.1.2. Study on Complete Building 6
2.2. Fire Resistant Steel 7
2.3. Travelling Fire Scenario 8
CHAPTER 3 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS THEORY 10
3.1. Conversion of Engineering to True Stress and Strain 10
3.2. Nonlinearity 12
3.2.1. Introduction 12
3.2.2. Newton-Rhapson Method 12
3.3. Instability 14
3.3.1. Introduction 14
3.3.2. Modified Riks Method 15
3.3.3. Artificial Viscous Damping Approach 16
3.3.4. Viscous Damping Approach Compare to Modified Riks Method 17
3.4. Elements 18
3.4.1. Beam 19
3.4.2. Shell 20
CHAPTER 4 STEEL STRUCTURE INTRODUCTION 25
4.1. Geometry 25
4.2. Sections 25
4.3. Materials 26
4.3.1. Steel Material 26
4.3.2. Concrete Material 29
CHAPTER 5 NUMERICAL MODELLING 41
5.1. Basic Assumptions 41
5.2. Strengthening Strategies 42
5.3. Fire Scenarios 42
5.3.1. Horizontally Travelling Fire Scenarios 43
5.3.2. Vertically Travelling Fire Scenario 44
5.4. Abbreviations for the Case Studies 44
5.5. Properties of Material 46
5.5.1. Elastic Modulus 47
5.5.2. Poisson’s Ratio 47
5.5.3. Plastic Stress-Strain relationship 47
5.5.4. Thermal expansion 48
5.6. Step of Analysis 48
5.7. Boundary Conditions 49
5.7.1. Loading 49
5.7.2. Boundary Setting 49
5.7.3. Temperature Setting 49
5.8. Element and Mesh 50
5.8.1. Element and Mesh Selection 50
5.8.2. Mesh Size Validation 50
5.9. Analysis Result Visualization 51
CHAPTER 6 RESULTS 66
6.1. Failure-Time Determination for Columns 66
6.2. Horizontally Travelling Fire Results 67
6.2.1. HS Fire Scenario 67
6.2.2. HW Fire Scenario 72
6.2.3. HM Fire Scenario 76
6.2.4. HC Fire Scenario 80
6.3. Vertically Travelling Fire Results 85
6.3.1. VS Fire Scenario 85
6.3.2. VW Fire Scenario 89
6.3.3. VC Fire Scenario 94
CHAPTER 7 DISCUSSIONS 237
7.1. Failure-Time Determination for the Building Structures 237
7.2. Axial Force Comparison 237
7.3. Comparison of Cost-Effectiveness 239
7.4. Conclusions 240
CHAPTER 8 CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 264
REFERENCES 267

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