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研究生:何昇翰
研究生(外文):Sheng-HanHo
論文名稱:超音波和微機電系統感測器整合於自走車追蹤之應用
論文名稱(外文):Integration of Ultrasonic and MEMS Sensors to Automatic Mobile Vehicle Tracking Applications
指導教授:廖德祿
指導教授(外文):Teh-Lu Liao
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:工程科學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:綜合工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:英文
論文頁數:71
中文關鍵詞:自走車追蹤陀螺儀
外文關鍵詞:automatic mobile vehicletrackinggyroscope
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隨著科技的進步,有越來越多的自動化產品,是為了運送和裝載重物更輕鬆,或是使我們的生活可以節省更多的人力資源,而被發展出來的。
本論文以微處理器(iD6800)為核心,設計一個具有追蹤功能的自走車,透過PWM訊號來控制直流馬達,使前輪轉動,達到前進的效果。藉由調整步進馬達來改變後輪的角度,讓自走車達到邊走邊轉彎的功能。
在感測器方面,利用陀螺儀來得知使用者和自走車轉彎的動作,再透過積分以及最小平方法的修正,來得轉彎的角度。自走車上的超音波感測器,可以由已知的距離,利用TOF計算出與使用者偏轉的方向以及距離,再透過步進馬達修正,使自走車可以達到對準使用者的目的,以及和使用者保持一定的距離。在通訊方面,透過ZigBee (UZ2400)作為使用者和自走車之間的溝通。
藉由整合超音波和感測器讓使用者不需要穿著任何特定顏色的衣服或在特殊環境,也可以解決使用攝影機因為陽光的影響所造成的問題。

The goal of this thesis is to design an automatic mobile vehicle tracking function, using a micro-controller (iD6800) as the control kernel. The micro-controller uses PWM to control a DC motor, which makes the front wheel rotation to go forward, and changes the angle of the rear wheel by adjusting the step motor to obtain the functions of moving and turning.
The sensor uses a gyroscope to know the turning movement of the user and the automatic mobile vehicle, and then the gyroscope uses the integral and least square methods to get the angle of turning. The ultrasonic range finder on the automatic mobile vehicle uses the TOF algorithm to calculate the offset angle and distance from the user. The automatic mobile vehicle can aim at the user using the step motor and maintain a specific distance between the user and vehicle.
The communication between the user and the automatic mobile vehicle is carried out through ZigBee (UZ2400).
The user is not required to wear any specific clothes or be in any special environment. As a result, it can overcome problems caused by the influence of sunlight when using a camera.

摘要 I
Abstract II
誌謝 IV
Contents V
List of Figures VII
List of Tables X
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Motivation and Objectives 1
1.2 Thesis Organization 3
Chapter 2 Fundamental Knowledge 4
2.1 The Overall Hardware Architecture 4
2.2 Hardware Architecture of the User 5
2.2.1 Micro-controller System 5
2.2.2 Communication System 7
2.2.3 Sensor System 8
2.2.3.1 Gyroscope 8
2.2.3.2 ADC0804 10
2.3 Hardware Architecture of the Automatic Mobile Vehicle 12
2.3.1 Body System 12
2.3.2 Power System 14
2.3.3 Motor System 15
2.3.3.1 DC Motor - TA7291P Bridge Driver 15
2.3.3.2 Step Motor 16
2.3.4 Sensor System 19
2.3.4.1 Ultrasonic Range Finder 19
2.4 The Software Architecture 22
Chapter 3 Architecture and Design 23
3.1 Overview of System Architecture 23
3.2 System Design 24
3.2.1 Control a DC Motor 26
3.2.2 Control a Ultrasonic Range Finder 29
3.3 Communication 33
3.3.1 Initialization 35
3.3.2 Transmission 38
3.3.3 Reception 39
3.4 Algorithm 40
3.4.1 System Procedure of the User 40
3.4.1.1 Integral 41
3.4.1.2 Least Square Method 47
3.4.2 System Procedure of Automatic Mobile Vehicle 49
Chapter 4 Implementation and Illustration 51
4.1 Experimental Environment 51
4.2 The Turning Results of the Automatic Mobile Vehicle 55
4.3 The Results of Aiming at the User 60
4.4 System Implementation 64
Chapter 5 Conclusions and Suggestions 68
References 70

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[2]J. L. Crowley, World Modeling and Position Estimation for a Mobile Robot Using Ultrasonic Ranging, IEEE Internationl Conference on Robotics and Automation, Scottsdale, AZ, USA, vol. 2,pp. 674-680, 1989
[3]C.H. Liu, A Fall Detection System using Accelerometer and Gyroscope, Department of Computer Science and Engineering Tatung University, Taiwan, 2011
[4]iD6800 Memory Map & Register, Revision1.2, 2008
[5]iDea iD6800 High-Speed USB MicroController, Revision1.0, 2008
[6]UZ2400 Low Power 2.4GHz Transceiver for IEEE 802.15.4 Standard, Bubec, Version1.3, 2008
[7]Integrated Dual-Axis Gyro IDG500 Datasheet, InvenSense, 2008
[8]TOSHIBA Bipolar Linear Integrated Circuit TA7291P Datasheet, TOSHIBA, 2001
[9]L780x series Positive Voltage Regulators, ST Microelectronics, 2003
[10]ADC0801/ADC0802/ADC0803/ADC0804/ADC0805 8-Bit μP Compatible A/D Converters, National Semiconductor, 1999
[11]顧高至, 智慧型多功能自走車之研發, 國立成功大學工程科學研究所碩士論文, 2003
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[13]林治遠, 無線感測網路之無參考點定位方式研究, 國立台灣科技大學資訊工程系碩士論文, 2006
[14]林子閔, 超音波與感測器整合於導盲手杖定位之應用, 國立台灣科技大學機械工程系碩士論文, 2009
[15]鄧錦城, 8051 單晶片專題製作, 宏友圖書開發股份有限公司, 2001
[16]楊明豐, 8051單晶片C語言設計實務:使用Keil C, 碁峰資訊股份有限公司, 2003

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