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研究生:張益誌
研究生(外文):Yi-ChihChang
論文名稱:奈米流體力學之電動幫浦和離子空間效應
論文名稱(外文):Electrokinetic Pump and Steric Effect in Nanofluidics
指導教授:楊瑞珍楊瑞珍引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ruey-Jen Yang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:工程科學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:綜合工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:英文
論文頁數:94
中文關鍵詞:電動能量轉換電池和幫浦模式離子大小效應流量整流電滲流幫浦
外文關鍵詞:Electrokinetic energy conversion efficiencyGeneration and pumping modeSteric effectFlow rate rectificationElectroosmotic flow pumps
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將奈米流體應用於生物或化學微機電系統是相當具有潛力的領域。本論文將奈米流體與電動現象結合,針對電動能量轉換進行研究,依據驅動流體方式可分為壓力驅動(電池模式)和電場驅動(電幫浦模式)。
本論文第一部分針對考慮離子大小效應後的流體在奈米管道下之現象,更進一步地以理論解析方式探討在此影響下以壓力驅動的電池其能量轉換效率的表現。以考慮離子大小效應所修正後的波松-波茲曼公式可得知在奈米管道中離子傳輸行為,如streaming current、電滲流和電遷移分別貢獻的電導度。結果可發現考慮離子大小效應後能量轉換效率能隨著表面電荷增大而提高。更進一步地再將導電率常數修正為隨著離子強度增加或減少而降低或提高,同樣地以理論解析方式探討在此影響下以壓力驅動的電池其能量轉換效率的表現。經結果可得知轉換效率確實能提高,但仍有其限制條件。
本論文第二部分針對將圓錐狀奈米管道的膜應用於電滲流幫浦上,更進一步地以數值模擬方式探討流量整流(短路條件下)和能量轉換效率(開路條件下)的表現。在短路電路情況下,流量整流會隨著施加的電場方向不同而產生不同整流結果,經由模擬得知造成整流結果不同是因為濃度極化的現象分別出現在不同區域。在開路電流情況下,模擬出在電解液濃度、外加電壓和管道半徑等參數變化時,電滲流幫浦在轉換效率的表現。經由結果可知在施加逆向偏壓時轉換效率能有較好的表現。
Nanofluidics is considered to be a potentially important area in the fields of analytical biology and chemistry. This thesis focuses on nanofluidics and the associated electrokinetic phenomena. The scope of this thesis that covers electrokinetic energy conversion is segregated according to the method used to drive the channel of fluid: pressure-driven (generation mode) and electric-field-driven (pumping mode).
In the first part of this thesis, we focus on the fluidic behavior in the nanochannel when the finite size ions (steric effect) are considered, and present theoretical calculations to investigate the performance of the electrokinetic battery energy conversion efficiency by using the pressure-driven method. Based on the modified Poisson–Boltzmann equation, the theoretical model for electrokinetic energy conversion is proposed to address the ionic transport of the steric effect in the nanochannel, such as the streaming current and electrical conductance due to the electroosmotic flow and electromigration flow. The results show that the conversion efficiency increased because of the increased surface charge density when the steric effect is considered. Furthermore, the electrical conductivity changes from being constant to a variable, which increases/decreases because of the decreased/increased ionic strength. The results calculated from the theoretical model are shown to enhance the conversion efficiency. However, the model still has limits.
In the last part of this thesis, we focus on the conical nanopore membrane employed in electroosmotic flow pumps, and present numerical simulations to investigate the performance of the flow rate rectification (in short circuit condition) and electrokinetic pumping energy conversion efficiency by using the electric-field-driven method (in open circuit condition). In short circuit condition, the flow rate rectification shows that the rectification direction changes with application of forward/reverse bias. The rectification results depend on the concentration polarization that occurs at different places. In open circuit condition, we simulate the influence of the electrolyte concentration, applied bias, and nanopore radii parameters on the conversion efficiency of electroosmotic flow pumps. The result shows that the conical nanopore membrane electroosmotic flow pump exhibits a higher efficiency for reverse bias.

中文摘要 I
Abstract II
誌 謝 IV
Nomenclature XI
Abbreviation XIII
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Nanofluidics 1
1.2 Applications 1
1.3 Electrokinetics 4
1.4 Electrokinetic battery 5
1.5 Electroosmotic Flow pumping 9
1.6 Motivation 16
1.7 Structure of the thesis 17
Chapter 2 Theoretical Model 18
2.1 Modified Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) and Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) model 18
2.2 Electrokinetic energy conversion 21
2.2.1 Maximum power generation 22
2.2.2 Maximum conversion efficiency 23
2.3 Numerical model 26
2.3.1 Governing equations 26
2.3.2 Computational domain and boundary conditions 29
Chapter 3 Steric Effect 32
3.1 Mathematical formulations 34
3.2 Mathematical model for ionic mobility 35
3.3 Finite difference method 39
3.4 Results and discussion 41
3.4.1 Steric effect 42
3.4.2 Ionic-strength-dependent ionic mobility 55
Chapter 4 Electroosmotic Pumps 65
4.1 Forward and reverse bias 66
4.2 Voltage flow rate characteristics 74
4.3 Electroosmotic pump energy conversion 82
Chapter 5 Conclusions 87
References 89

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