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研究生:張劭任
研究生(外文):Shao-JenChang
論文名稱:台灣職業棒球投手直球、滑球和曲球的生物力學分析
論文名稱(外文):A Biomechanical Analysis among the Fastball, Slider and Curveball in Taiwanese Professional Baseball Pitchers
指導教授:王榮泰
指導教授(外文):Jung-Tai Wang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:工程科學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:綜合工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:190
中文關鍵詞:棒球投手投球直球滑球曲球肌力肩關節屈曲關節活動角度肘關節近端軸向力肘關節內側力運動學動力學
外文關鍵詞:BaseballPitcherPitchingFastballSliderCurveballMuscle StrengthShoulder FlexionRange of MotionElbow Proximal ForceElbow Medial ForceKinematicsKinetics
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:2
  • 點閱點閱:323
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:30
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
前言:
  棒球投手在學習一種新的變化球時,整體投球動作中的肩關節、肘關節、腕關節及膝關節都會有些許的變化和調整,因此能知道學習一種新的變化球並不是相當容易。
目的:
  探討國內職業棒球投手直球、滑球與曲球其投球過程中的運動學與動力學參數差異,並為國內建立一套直球、滑球與曲球的投球動作標準。
  探討國內職業棒球投手在投球後的肌力衰退與關節活動角度變化。
研究方法:
  本研究以十位職業棒球投手做為受測者。受測者投球前、投球後、投球後第一天和投球後第二天皆量測關節活動角度和肌力,來觀察其投球後關節活動角度和肌力變化。使用三維動作分析系統擷取過肩投球(Overhead)動作的過程,投球內容以直球、滑球和曲球三種球路。統計方法用重複測量變異數分析及配對t檢定分析。設定p〈0.05即達顯著差異。
結果:
  直球與滑球的分析結果,100項運動學參數中,有31項有達到統計上顯著差異,33項動力學參數中,有12項有達到統計上顯著差異;直球與曲球的分析結果,100項運動學參數中,有66項有達到統計上顯著差異,33項動力學參數中,有24項有達到統計上顯著差異;滑球與曲球的分析結果,100項運動學參數中,有67項有達到統計上顯著差異,33項動力學參數中,有27項有達到統計上顯著差異。
  肌力結果,投球前的肩關節屈曲肌力大於投球後的肩關節屈曲肌力,達統計上顯著差異(p=0.034),且持續到投球後第二天。
  關節活動角度結果,投球前的肘關節伸展角度大於投球後的肘關節伸展角度,達統計上顯著差異(p=0.013),且持續到投球後第二天。
結論:
  直球和滑球的比較中,其相似度比較高,因為兩者球速都非常快,所以整體動作變化不會太大,僅有在球離手時的微小變化,因此比賽時有混淆打者的作用。曲球的整體動作變化就比較大,因為曲球行進軌跡上的變化差異需要比較大,故在整個動作上會有比較大的差異變化,因此打者若能清楚觀察出差異,能就更清楚預測到球的行進軌跡。投手在進行投擲滑球和曲球時,會產生相當大的肘關節近端軸向力及肘關節內側力,故建議投手加強肘關節附近肌群,避免手肘部位的運動傷害發生。
  肌力在投球後肩關節屈曲肌力有持續疲勞到投球第二天的趨勢,因此建議投手可以加強此肌群,以避免在投球運動中產生運動傷害。

Introduction:
  When the baseball pitchers are learning a new kind of breaking ball, the pitching motion of their shoulders, elbows, wrists and knees need to be adjusted, it is generally known that learning a new breaking ball is a difficult process.
Purpose :
  To study the kinematic and kinetic differences among the fastball, slider and curveball, base on these statistics to build up pitching motion database standard posture.
  To study the decreased muscle strength and range of motion of the pitchers after the pitching.
Methods:
  Ten professional baseball pitcher. By measuring the range of motion and muscle strength before pitching, after pitching, the first and second days after pitching. Data were collected with an outdoor three dimensional motion analysis system (Raptor-E Cameras, Motion Analysis Corp., Santa Rosa, C.A., U.S.A) which records the progresses of pitchers throwing overhead, pitched fastball, slider and curveball. Statistical methods using repeated measures ANOVA and paired t-test. Significant at P 〈 0.05
Results:
  Out of 100 kinematic parameters, 31 kinematic parameters were significantly different between fastball and slider. Out of 33 kinetic parameters, 12 kinetic parameters were significantly different between fastball and slider. Out of 100 kinematic parameters, 66 kinematic parameters were significantly different between fastball and curveball. Out of 33 kinetic parameters, 24 kinetic parameters were significantly different between fastball and curveball. Out of 100 kinematic parameters, 67 kinematic parameters were significantly different between curveball and slider. Out of 33 kinetic parameters, 27 kinetic parameters were significantly different between curveball and slider.
  Immediately after pitching, the muscle strength significantly decreased in shoulder flexion((p=0.034), and continued until second day after pitching.
  The results of range of motion, show that after pitching, the range of motion significantly decreased in elbow extension(p=0.013) , and continued until second day after pitching.
Conclusion:
  Fastball and slider have high similarity in pitching motion, because the velocity of both balls is very fast, so there won't be great difference in pitching motion change, only negligible changes would happen while in the ball release. This ultimately accomplishes the intention of confusing so batters during the game. Curveball is different from fastball and slider in pitching motion, because curveball needs larger trajectory change, and this reflects on the pitching motion. Furthermore, if the batter is able to identify differences, then the moving trajectory of the ball is predictable. While the pitchers throw out a slider and curve ball, it will cause more elbow proximal force and elbow medial force, hence it is suggested that pitchers need to strengthen the elbow muscles, so the occurrence of sports injuries to elbow can be avoided.
  The shoulder flexion muscle strength fatigue continued until second day after pitching, the suggestion is to strengthen the shoulder flexion muscle, and avoid sports injuries in the pitching movement.

摘要I
AbstractIII
誌謝VI
目錄VIII
內文目錄IX
表目錄XVI
圖目錄XVIII
符號XXII
第一章 緒論1
 1.1前言1
 1.2文獻回顧4
  1.2.1過肩投球之動作分期5
  1.2.2投球過程中使用的主要肌群7
  1.2.3直球的生物力學相關研究10
  1.2.4滑球與曲球的生物力學相關研究18
  1.2.5投球後的肌力影響28
  1.2.6投球後的關節活動角度影響29
 1.3研究動機31
 1.4研究目的32
第二章 理論與分析方法33
 2.1 運動學與動力學之理論方法33
 2.2實驗假設36
 2.3定義反光球位置37
  2.3.1靜態與動態資料描述40
  2.3.2關節中心41
  2.3.3座標系的訂定44
 2.4生物力學模式在空間中運動的描述與分析51
  2.4.1旋轉矩陣與關節夾角53
  2.4.2角速度與角加速度之計算56
  2.4.3肢段作用力之計算58
  2.4.4肢段作用力矩之計算59
 2.5運動學與動力學的流程61
  2.5.1運動學計算流程61
  2.5.2動力學計算流程63
 2.6運動學與動力學的方向定義64
  2.6.1運動學方向定義64
  2.6.2動力學方向定義66
第三章 研究方法68
 3.1 實驗設備68
  3.1.1 硬體設備68
  3.1.2 軟體設備71
 3.2 研究對象72
  3.2.1 受測者資料72
 3.3實驗設備架設73
 3.4 實驗流程74
  3.4.1 實驗問卷調查76
  3.4.2 實驗空間校正76
  3.4.3 暖身練習77
  3.4.4 肩及肘關節活動角度量測77
  3.4.5 肌力量測80
  3.4.6 投球動作分析85
 3.5 資料處理88
 3.6 統計方法89
第四章 研究結果90
 4.1球速、投球數量、自覺量表統計90
 4.2投球運動學91
  4.2.1前導腳著地之運動學結果91
   4.2.1.1直球與滑球91
   4.2.1.2直球與曲球92
   4.2.1.3滑球與曲球93
  4.2.2手臂後拉時期之運動學結果94
   4.2.2.1直球與滑球94
   4.2.2.2直球與曲球95
   4.2.2.3滑球與曲球95
  4.2.3肩關節最大外旋角度之運動學結果95
   4.2.3.1直球與滑球96
   4.2.3.2直球與曲球96
   4.2.3.3滑球與曲球98
  4.2.4手臂加速時期之運動學結果99
   4.2.4.1直球與滑球99
   4.2.4.2直球與曲球99
   4.2.4.3滑球與曲球100
  4.2.5球離手之運動學結果100
   4.2.5.1直球與滑球101
   4.2.5.2直球與曲球101
   4.2.5.3滑球與曲球103
  4.2.6手臂減速時期之運動學結果104
   4.2.6.1直球與滑球104
   4.2.6.2直球與曲球104
   4.2.6.3滑球與曲球105
  4.2.7最大內旋角度之運動學結果105
   4.2.7.1直球與滑球105
   4.2.7.2直球與曲球106
   4.2.7.3滑球與曲球107
 4.3軀幹轉向及上臂的最大角度、角速度時間115
  4.3.1最大角度、角速度時間比較結果115
  4.3.2軀幹及骨盆轉向前方時間比較結果116
 4.4投球動力學118
  4.4.1手臂後拉時期之動力學結果118
   4.4.1.1直球與滑球118
   4.4.1.2直球與曲球118
   4.4.1.3滑球與曲球119
  4.4.2手臂加速時期之動力學結果120
   4.4.2.1直球與滑球120
   4.4.2.2直球與曲球121
   4.4.2.3滑球與曲球122
  4.4.3手臂減速時期之動力學結果123
   4.4.3.1直球與滑球123
   4.4.3.2直球與曲球123
   4.4.3.3滑球與曲球124
 4.5肌力127
4.5.1肌力量測結果127
 4.6關節活動角度132
4.6.1肩關節、肘關節之關節活動角度量測結果132
第五章 討論134
 5.1球速、投球數量、自覺量表統計134
5.2投球運動學135
  5.2.1直球與滑球比較之運動學探討135
  5.2.2直球與曲球比較之運動學探討136
  5.2.3滑球與曲球比較之運動學探討138
 5.3軀幹轉向及上臂的最大角度、角速度時間141
  5.3.1最大角度、角速度時間比較的探討141
  5.3.2軀幹及骨盆轉向前方時間比較的探討142
 5.4投球動力學143
  5.4.1直球與滑球比較之動力學探討143
  5.4.2直球與曲球比較之動力學探討144
  5.4.3滑球與曲球比較之動力學探討145
 5.5投球後肌力衰退之影響147
5.5.1投球後肌力衰退之影響147
 5.6關節活動角度150
5.6.1投球後肩關節、肘關節之關節活動角度之影響150
 5.7研究限制151
第六章 結論152
 6.1結論152
 6.2未來展望156
參考文獻157
【附錄A】動作分析基本資料161
【附錄B】受測者同意書162
【附錄C】自覺量表(Brog’s RPE)166
【附錄D】肩關節外旋角度趨勢圖(FC-END)167
【附錄E】肩關節外旋角度趨勢圖(FC-BR)168
【附錄F】運動學參數曲線圖169
【附錄G】動力學參數曲線圖181

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