跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(3.236.124.56) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/07/28 09:32
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:陳光宇
研究生(外文):Guang-YuChen
論文名稱:含末端炔Benzoxazine:合成、硬化及熱性質的探討
論文名稱(外文):Acetylene-Containing Benzoxazine: Synthesis, Curing and Thermal Properties of Cured Product
指導教授:陳雲陳雲引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yun Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:化學工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:化學工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:76
中文關鍵詞:苯併噁嗪耐熱材料炔鍵
外文關鍵詞:benzoxazinethermal resistanceacetylene
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:1033
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:66
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
本研究為了開發出具有強大韌性又有高耐熱性的材料,將具有高韌性的benzoxazine官能基接上具有高耐熱性質的末端炔官能基,成功用兩種方法合成出含有末端炔官能基的benzoxazine,其中一種方法利用文獻無溶劑的方法但產率只有27 % ,而另外一種雖然步驟繁瑣但卻提升至將近60 %,而且利用NMR、IR、和EA將產物以及中間產物鑑定得非常完整,而在熱性質方面利用不同硬化條件去探討熱交聯的特性,主要是為了測試在哪種情況下可以獲得最好的交聯密度及耐熱性,利用TGA測試看硬化高分子在熱重損失5 %和10 %下的溫度以及在800 ℃下殘餘的重量,發現在溶劑中熱交聯可以獲得最好的熱性質高分子,在熱重損失10 %時溫度高達530 ℃遠比其他條件下來的好,而且在800 ℃下殘碳量也高達68 %,跟其他一般高分子熱性質來的高,但本研究主要是為了能夠獲得高韌性的高分子,我們利用拉力機,去量測應力對應變曲線,發現此材料楊式模數高達691 MPa,應變也有0.06,研究顯示熱性質很好,而材料強度方面,硬度非常好,而且在韌性上比PAA高耐熱性的高分子相較要來的好,這種材料其應變都接近0.03過於硬脆,開發出這種新型材料不但能取代現有的酚醛樹脂在耐熱上的應用,而且強大的機械性質也改善以前高耐熱性材料過於硬脆的缺點。
In order to develop a strong toughness also have high thermal stability materials with high toughness benzoxazine groups connected to the acetylene functional groups with high thermal stability. We successfully have used two methods to get the acetylene-cantaining benzoxazine. In one way we use solvent less method, but only get the yield 27 %, and the other way not only improve the yield to 60 %, but also identify inter-medium very clearly by NMR, IR, and EA. Then we have some research on acetylene-cantaining polybenzoxazine curing condition. In order to find what the situation we can get the best cross-linking density. And used the TGA, we can get the temperature of weight loss 5 % and 10 %, moreover char yield at 800 ℃. Trough different thermal curing conditions, we have found curing in solvent can raise char yield to 68 %, and temperature of weight loss 10 % was 530℃, it was the best conditions. In order to test Mechanical properties, we use the tensile machine, to the measured stress-strain curve. We found that toughness property is better than curing polymer such as PAA, and the strength of the material was 691 MPa. In this study we find that our products have excellent thermal property and mechanical properties, indicating that it might replace phenolic resins.
目錄
中文摘要 I
ABSTRACT II
目錄 IV
表目錄 VI
流程目錄 VII
圖目錄 VIII
第一章緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
第二章基礎理論與文獻回顧 2
2.1 苯併噁嗪材料簡介 2
2.1.1 苯併噁嗪發展歷史 2
2.1.2 苯併噁嗪的製造方法與化性 6
2.1.3 苯併噁嗪的材料性能與用途 13
2.1.4 聚苯併噁嗪反應的機制與方法 24
2.2 PAA低燒蝕性複合材料 30
2.2.1 PAA材料發展史 30
2.3 研究動機 34
第三章 實驗部份 35
3.1 實驗裝置與設備 35
3.2 鑑定儀器 36
3.3 實驗藥品 38
3.4 實驗步驟 38
3.4.1 單體合成 38
3.4.2 熱聚合條件的探討 41
第四章結果與討論 42
4.1 單體合成結果與討論 42
4.1.1 NMR鑑定: 42
4.1.2 FTIR鑑定: 49
4.1.3 EA鑑定 52
4.2 DSC 分析: 55
4.3 TGA分析: 57
4.4 拉力測試: 66
第五章結論 68
參考文獻 70


[1].F.W. Holly, A.C. Cope, Condensation products of aldehydes and ketones with o-aminobenzyl alcohol and o-hydrogy benzylamine, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 66, 1875, (1944).
[2].W.J. Burke, 3,4-Dihydro-1,3,2H-benzoxazines. Reaction of psubstituted phenols with N,N-dimethylolamines, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 71, 609, (1949).
[3].W.J. Burke, C. Weatherbee, 3,4-Dihydro-1,3,2H-benzoxazines. Reaction of polyhydroxybebnzenes with N-methylamines, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 72, 4691, (1950).
[4].W.J. Burke, C.W. Stephens, Monomeric products from the condensation of phenol with formaldehyde and primary amines, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 74, 1518, (1952).
[5].W.J. Burke, M.J. Kolbezen, C.W. Stephens, Condensation of naphthols with formaldehyde and primary amines, J. Org. Chem., 74, 3601, (1952).
[6].W.J. Burke, R.P. Smith, C. Weatherbee, N,N-bis-(hydroxybenzyl)- amines: synthesis from phenols, formaldehyde and primary amines, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 74, 602, (1952).
[7].W.J. Burke, K.C. Murdoch, G. Ec, Condensation of hydroxyaromatic compounds with formaldehyde and primary aromatic amines, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 76, 1677, (1954).
[8].W.J. Burke, E.L. Glennie, C. Weatherbee, Condensation of halophenols with formaldehyde and primary amines, J. Org. Chem., 29, 909, (1964).
[9].W.J. Burke, J.L. Bishop, E.L. Glennie, W.N. Bauer, Jr, A new aminoalkylation reaction. Condensation of phenols with dihydro-1,3- aroxazines, J. Org. Chem., 30, 3423, (1965).
[10].H. Schreiber, German Offen, 2, 255, 504, 1973.
[11].H. Schreiber, German Offen, 2, 323, 936, 1973.
[12].H.P. Higginbottom, Polymerizable compositions comprising olyamines and poly(dihydrobenzoxazines), U.S. Pat. 4, 501, 864, 985.
[13].H.P. Higginbottom, Aqueous dispersions of polyamines and poly dihydrobenzoxazines), U.S. Pat. 4, 507, 428, 1985.
[14].H.P. Higginbottom, Process for deposition of resin dispersions on etal substrates, U.S. Pat. 4, 557, 979, 1985.
[15].G. Reiss, J.M. Schwob, G. Guth, Structure-property relations of epoxies used as composite matrices, Adv. Polym. Sci., 72, 1, (1985)
[16].E.T. Turpin, D.T. Thrane, Self-curable benzoxazine functional athodic electrocoat resins and process, U.S. Pat. 4, 719, 253, 1988.
[17].X. Ning, H. Ishida, Phenolic materials via ring-opening polymerization- ynthesis and characterization of bisphenol-A based benzoxazines nd their polymers, J. Polym. Sci. A Polym. Chem., 32, 1121, (1994).
[18].Nair CPR. Advances in addition-cure phenolic resins, Prog. Polym. Sci., 29401, (2004).
[19].J.P. Liu, H. Ishida, A new class of phenolic resins with ring-opening polymerization, in: J.C. Salamone (Ed.), The Polymeric Materials Encyclopedia, CRC Press, Florida, pp. 484–494, 1996.
[20].H. Ishida, Development of polybenzoxazines: a new class of high performance, ring-opening phenolic resins with superb balance of physical and mechanical properties, Proc. Ann. Tech. Conf, Comp. Inst, SPI, Session 14-B, 1998.
[21].M. Zeng, L.L. Wang, J.M. Liu, Recent development of polybenzoxazines, Petrol. Chem. Technol. Appl., 18, 103, (2000).
[22].H. Xiang, Y. Gu, Research developments of a new class phenolic resin-benzoxazine resin, Polym. Mater. Sci. Eng., 20, 1, (2004).
[23].Q. Xie, C.L. Bao, X. Fu, Z.J. Lu, Recent development of polybenzoxazine, Chinese. J. Tropical. Agricul., 24, 59, (2004).
[24].N. Li, L. Li, F.Y. Dong, Progress of phenolic resin using ring-opening polymerization of benzoxazines, J. North. China. Inst. Technol., 25, 363, (2004).
[25].H. Xiang, Y. Gu, Research progress in polymer blend modification of benzoxazine resins, Mater. Rev., 18, 51, (2004).
[26].S.F. Li, J.F. Fu, L.L. Wang, M.L. Xie, Y. Li, Research development of polybenzoxazines, Adv. Fine. Petro. Chem., 8, 47, (2004).
[27].T. Takeichi, T. Agag, High performance polybenzoxazines as novel thermosets, High. Perform. Polym., 18, 777, (2006).
[28].Y.L. He, L. Li, F.Y. Dong, Research progress of a kind of novel phenolic resin-benzoxazine resin, China. Adhes, 15, 42, (2006).
[29].Y.L. He, L. Li, F.Y. Dong, Advances in the research on high performance benzoxazines, Insul. Mater, 39, 5, (2006).
[30].N.N. Ghosh, B. Kiskan, Y. Yagci, Polybenzoxazines-new high performance thermosetting resins: synthesis and properties, Prog. Polym. Sci., 32, 1344, (2007).
[31].L.Y. Tao, J.B. Wang, L.J. Wang, Research progress of a novel thermosetting engineering plastics-benzoxazines, Hebei. Chem. Eng. Ind., 30, 16, (2007).
[32].W.W. Men, Z.J. Lu, High performance polybenzoxazines, Prog. Chem., 19, 779, (2007).
[33].C. Li, N. Gao, Y. Gu, Research progress of thermal property of polybenzoxazine, Chem. Propell. Polym. Mater, 5, 8, (2007).
[34].R.P. Subrayan, F.N. Jones, Condensation of substituted phenols with hexakis(methoxymethyl)melamine: synthesis, characterization, and properties of substituted 2,4,6-tris[3,4-dihydro-1,3-(2H)benzoxazine- 3-yl]-s-triazine derivatives, Chem. Mater, 10, 3506, (1998).
[35].J. Dunkers, E.A. Zarate, H. Ishida, Crystal structure and hydrogen bonding characteristics of N,N-bis(3,5-dimethyl-2-hydroxybenzyl) methylamine: a benzoxazine dimer, J. Phys. Chem., 100, 13514, (1996).
[36].J.P. Dunkers, Ph.D. Thesis, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, 1994.
[37].X. Liu, Y. Gu, Effects of molecular structure parameters on ringopening reaction of benzoxazines, Sci. China. B., 44, 552, (2001).
[38].R. Huerta, R.A. Toscano, I. Castillo, 1,4-Bis(8-ter-butyl-6-methyl- 4H-1,3-benzoxazin-3-yl)benzewne, Acta. Cryst., 62, 2938, (2006).
[39].X.L. Chen, M.H. Wu, 3-Benzyl-6-methyl-s,4-dihydro-2H-1,3-benzoxazine, Acta. Cryst., 63, 3684, (2007).
[40].S. Ranjith, S. Thenmozhi, R. Manikannan, S. Muthusubramanian, A. Subbiahpandi, 3,30-(p-Phenylene)bis(3,4-dihydro-2H-1,3-benzoxazine), Acta. Cryst., 65, 581, (2009).
[41].H. Ishida, US Patent, 5, 543, 516, 1996.
[42].R. Andreu, J.A. Reina, J.C. Ronda, Studies on the Thermal Polymerization of Substituted Benzoxazine Monomers: Electronic Effects, J. Polym. Sci. A : Polym Chem., 109, 3353, (2008).
[43].A.F. McDonagh, H. E. Smith, Ring-chain tautomerism of derivatives of o-hydroxybenzylamine with aldehydes and ketones, J. Org. Chem., 33,1, (1968).
[44].M.C. Aversa, P. Giannetto, C. Caristi, A. Ferlazzo, Behavior of an N-(ortho-hydroxybenzyl)-beta-amino-acid in the presence of dehydrating agents-synthesis of a 3,4-dihydro- 2H-1,3-benzoxazine, J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Comm., 8, 469, (1982).
[45].H. Kanatomi, I. Murase, Reaction of salicylamine with alpha-dicarbonyl compounds. 2. Formation of 2,20-bibenz- 1,3-oxazines, Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn., 43, 226, (1970).
[46].V. Snieckus, Tertiary amide and O-carbamate directors in synthetic strategies for polysubstituted aromatics, Chem. Rev., 90, 879, (1990).
[47].A.R. Katritzky, Y.J. Xu, R. Jain, A novel dilithiation approach to 3,4-dihydro-2H-1,3-benzothiazines, 3,4-dihydro- 2H-1,3-benzoxazines, and 2,3,4,5-Tetrahydro-1,3-benzothiazepines, J. Org. Chem., 67, 8234, (2002).
[48].K. Hemvichian, A. Laobuthee, S. Chirachanchai, H. Ishida,, Thermal decomposition processes in polybenzoxazine model dimers investigated by TGA-FTIR and GC-MS, Polym. Degrad. Stab., 76, 1, (2002).
[49].Y.X. Wang, H. Ishida, Development of low-viscosity benzoxazine resins and their polymers, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 86, 2953, (2002).
[50].H. Kimura, S. Taguchi, A. Matsumoto, Studies on new type of phenolic resin (IX) curing reaction of bisphenol A-based benzoxazine with bisoxazoline and the properties of the cured resin. II. Cure reactivity of benzoxazine, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 79, 2331, (2001).
[51].H. Ishida, Y. Rodriguez, Curing kinetics of a new benzoxazine-based phenolic resin by differential scanning calorimetry, Polym., 36, 3151, (1995).
[52].Z. Brunovska, J.P. Liu, H. Ishida, 1,3,5-triphenylhexahydro- 1,3,5-triazine-active intermediate and precursor in the novel synthesis of benzoxazine monomers and oligomers, Macromol. Chem. Phys., 200, 1745, (1999).
[53].S. Wirasate, S. Dhumrongvaraporn, D.J. Allen, H. Ishida, Molecular origin of unusual physical and mechanical properties in novel phenolic materials based on benzoxazine chemistry, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 70, 1299, (1998).
[54].S.B. Shen, H. Ishida, Dynamic mechanical and thermal characterization of high-performance polybenzoxazines, J. Polym. Sci. B: Polym. Phys., 37, 3257, (1999).
[55].H. Ishida, D.P. Sanders, Improved thermal and mechanical properties of polybenzoxazines based on alkyl-substituted aromatic amines, J. Polym. Sci. B: Polym. Phys., 38, 3289, (2000).
[56].H. Ishida, C.M. Krus, Synthesis and characterization of structurally uniform model oligomers of polybenzoxazine. Macromol., 31, 2409, (1998).
[57].H.D. Kim, H. Ishida, A study on hydrogen bonding in controlled-structure benzoxazine model oligomers. Macromol. Symp., 195, 123, (2003).
[58].S. Andre, A. Rousseau, B. Boutevin, G. Caporiccio, Synthesis, characterization, and thermal properties of anhydride terminated and allyl terminated oligoimides, J. Polym. Sci. A: Polym. Chem., 38, 2993, (2000).
[59].K.F. Lin, J.S. Lin, C.H. Cheng, Synthesis, curing, and decomposition of allylamine-adducted 3,30-bismaleimidodiphenylsulphone resins, J. Polym. Sci. A: Polym. Chem., 35, 2469, (1997).
[60].G.Z. Liang, A.J. Gu, Toughening bismaleimide resins by Nallyl aromatic amine. Polym. J., 29, 553, (1997).
[61].C. Gouri, C.P.R. Nair, R. Ramaswamy, Adhesive characteristics of alder-ene adduct of diallyl bisphenol A novolac and bisphenol A bismaleimide, High Perform Polym., 12, 497, (2000).
[62].H. Ishida, H.Y. Low, Synthesis of benzoxazine functional silane and adhesion properties of glass-fiber-reinforced polybenzoxazine composites, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 69, 2559, (1998).
[63].D.F. Pei, Y. Gu, X.X. Cai, Structure and curing behavior of a new dibenzoxazine precursor containing allyl group, Acta. Polym. Sinica., 1, 595, (1998).
[64].T. Agag, T. Takeichi, Synthesis and characterization of novel benzoxazine monomers containing allyl groups and their high performance thermosets, Macromol., 36, 6010, (2003).
[65].Z. Brunovska, R. Lyon, H. Ishida, Thermal properties of phthalonitrile functional polybenzoxazines, Thermochim Acta, 357, 195, (2000).
[66].Y.L. Liu, J.M. Yu, C.I. Chou, Preparation and properties of novel benzoxazine and polybenzoxazine with maleimide groups, J. Polym. Sci. A: Polym. Chem., 42, 5954, (2004).
[67].Y.L. Liu, J.M. Yu, Cocuring behaviors of benzoxazine and maleimide derivatives and the thermal properties of the cured products, J. Polym. Sci. A: Polym. Chem., 44, 1890, (2006).
[68].H. Ishida, S. Ohba, Synthesis and characterization of maleimide and norbornene functionalized benzoxazines, Polym., 46, 5588, (2005).
[69].H.I. Thanyalak Chaisuwan, High-performance maleimide and nitrile-functionalized benzoxazines with good processibility for advanced composites applications, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 101, 548, (2006).
[70].Y.C. Su, W.C. Chen, F.C. Chang, Investigation of the thermal properties of novel adamantane-modified polybenzoxazine, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 94, 932, (2004).
[71].Y.C. Su, W.C. Chen, F.C. Chang, Preparation and characterization of poly pseudorotaxanes based on adamantanemodified polybenzoxazines and beta-cyclodextrin, Polym., 46, 1617, (2005).
[72].B. Kiskan, Y. Yagci, Thermally curable benzoxazine monomer with a photodimerizable coumarin group, J. Polym. Sci. A: Polym. Chem., 45, 1670, (2007).
[73].R. Andreu, M.A. Espinosa, M. Galia, V. Cadiz, J.C. Ronda, J.A. Reina, Synthesis of novel benzoxazines containing glycidyl groups: a study of the crosslinking behavior, J. Polym. Sci. A: Polym. Chem., 44, 1529, (2006).
[74].H. Ishida, T. Agag, Handbook of Benzoxazine Resins, Elsevier.
[75].J.D. McGee, S. Kreiling, S.L. Lehmann, A. Taden, High performance adhesives and methods of their use, WO2010002872A2.
[76].S. Rimdusit, P. Jongvisuttisun, C. Jubsilp, W. Tanthapanichakoon, Highly processable ternary systems based on benzoxazine, epoxy, and phenolic resins for carbon fiber composite processing, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 111, 1225, (2009).
[77].S. Rimdusit, C. Liengvachiranon, S. Tiptipakorn, C. Jubsilp, Thermomechanical characteristics of benzoxazine-urethane copolymers and their carbon fiber-reinforced composites, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 113, 3823, (2009).
[78].W.H. Li, S.L. Lehmann, R.S. Wong, Curable compositions, US Patent 7157509B2.
[79].S.L. Lehmann, W.H. Li, R.S. Wong, Prepreg laminates, US Patent 7537827B1.
[80].S.L. Lehmann, W.H. Li, R.S. Wong, Curable compositions for advanced processes, and products made therefrom, US Patent 20050042961A1.
[81].Y. Huang, D.L. Hunston, A.J. Kinloch, C.K. Riew, Mechanisms of toughening thermoset resins, Adv. Chem. Ser., 233, 1, (1993).
[82].H. Ishida, Y. Rodriguez, Curing kinetics of a new benzoxazine based phenolic resin by DSC, Polym., 36, 3151, (1995).
[83].Y.X. Wang, H. Ishida, Cationic ring-opening polymerization of benzoxazines, Polym., 40, 4563, (1999).
[84].J. Dunkers, H. Ishida, Reaction of benzoxazine-based phenolic resins with strong and weak carboxylic acids and phenols as catalysts, J. Polym. Sci. Part. A. Polym. Chem., 37, 1913, (1999).
[85].J. Cid, X.Y. Wang, H. Ishida, Cationic polymerization of benzoxazine resins by borontrifluoride initiator, Polym. Polym. Compos., 7, 409, (1999).
[86].T. Hayakawa, Y. Osanai, K. Niizeki, O. Haba, M. Ueda, The curing reaction of 3-aryl substituted benzoxazine, High. Perform. Polym., 12, 237, (2000).
[87].Y.X. Wang, H. Ishida, Synthesis and properties of new thermoplastic polymers from substituted 3,4-dihydro-2H-1,3-benzoxazine, Macromol., 33, 2839, (2000).
[88].A. Sudo, R. Kudo, H. Nakayama, K. Arima, T. Endo, Selective formation of poly(N,O-acetal) by polymerization of 1,3-benzoxazine and its main chain rearrangement, Macromol., 41, 9030, (2008).
[89].P. Chutayothin, H. Ishida, Cationic ring-opening polymerization of 1,3-benzoxazines: mechanistic study using model compounds, Macromol., 43, 4562, (2010).
[90].X. Ning, H. Ishida, Phenolic mateials via ring-opening polymerization of benzoxazines: effect of molecular structure on mechanical and dynamic mechanical properties, J. Polym. Sci. Phys., 32, 921, (1994).
[91].R. Jiang, S. Dong, Rotating ring disk electrode theory dealing with nonstationary electrocatalysis: study of the electrocatalytic reduction of dioxygen at cobalt protoporphyrin modified electrode, J. Phys. Chem., 94, 7471, (1990).
[92].M.A. Tasdelen, M. Kiskan, Y. Yagci, Photoinitiated free radical polymerization using benzoxazines as hydrogen donors, Macromol. Rapid. Commun., 27, 1539, (2006).
[93].H. Ishida, C.M. Krus, Synthesis and characterization of structurally uniform model oligomers of polybenzoxazine, Macromol., 31, 2409, (1998)
[94].G.R. Goward, D. Sebastiani, I. Schnell, H.W. Spiess, H.D. Kim, H. Ishida, techniques Benzoxazine oligomers: evidence for a helical structure from solid-stateNMRand DFT-based dynamics and chemical shift calculations, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 125, 5792, (2003).
[95].T.X. Neenan and G.M. Whitesides, J. Org. Chem., 53, 2489, (1988)
[96].L.E. Carasino and D.C. Herak, U.S. patent, 4, 977, 991, 5.
[97].H. Jabloner , “Poly(Arylacetylene) Molding Compositions , US patent, 4,070,333.
[98].H. Jabloner et al, “Poly(Arylacetylene) and Thermoset Resins Thereform , US patent, 4,097,460.
[99].丁學文等人,新型耐熱材料芳基乙炔聚合物的性能,合成樹脂及塑料, 21, 50, (2004).
[100].張德雄等人, 高溫複合材料基體樹脂聚芳基乙炔綜述, 固體火箭技術, 24, 1, (2001).。
[101].賈玲等人, 碳纖維表面等離子接枝及對碳纖維/複合材料ILSS的影響,複合材料學報, 21, 4, (2004).
[102].黃玉東等人, 碳纖維/聚芳基乙炔複合材料介面特性的原子力顯微鏡研究, 複合材料學報, 22, 6, (2005).
[103].黃玉東等人, Surface & Coatings Technology, 201, 4965, (2007).
[104].W.C. Tseng, Y. Chen, G.W. Chang, Curing conditions of polyarylacetylene prepolymers thermally resistant materialsto obtain, Polym. Degrad. Stabil., 94, 2149, (2009).
[105].X. Wu, Y. Zhou, S.Z. Liu, Y.N. Guo, J.J. Qiu, C.M. Liu, Highly branched benzoxazine monomer based on cyclotriphosphazene: Synthesis and properties of the monomer and polybenzoxazines, Polym., 52, 1004, (2011).

連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top