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研究生:杜小倩
研究生(外文):Hsiao-ChienTu
論文名稱:魚類適合度曲線通用性之研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study in Transferability of Fish Suitability Curves
指導教授:孫建平孫建平引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jian-Ping Suen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:水利及海洋工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:河海工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:116
中文關鍵詞:適合度曲線通用性可利用棲地豐、枯水期
外文關鍵詞:Suitability CurveTransferabilityHabitat AvailabilityDry and Wet Season
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河川棲地模擬等工具較常被用於量化河川環境變化與生物間的關係,但是該模式須與適合度曲線作結合,而適合度曲線的概念主要是藉由數字量化來表示生物對環境變化的適應能力,其值越高表示該環境為較適合的棲地環境,因此也將影響河川棲地模擬之結果,且魚類調查於台灣實非易事,若能從以往調查之結果得到一條可通用性的曲線,將能夠提供河川管理者作為參考。
本研究主要利用行政院農業委員會特有生物研究保育中心在2009~2012年於台灣北、中、南三條溪,分別為頭前溪、烏溪、旗山溪(楠梓仙溪)以電格法進行的棲地調查資料所採集到的魚類資料,進行流速、水深、底質等物理微棲地適合度曲線的繪製,且藉由等級相關檢定檢驗不同河流間相同魚種適合度曲線的關聯程度,再利用等級相關分析了解三條溪豐、枯水期時可利用棲地的改變情形,並探討豐、枯水期可利用棲地之變化是否影響魚類適合度曲線,也藉由複迴歸分析探討水質與魚類豐度之關係以了解是否水質亦是造成曲線差異之因素,然後比較棲地利用曲線(utilization suitability)和偏好曲線(preference suitability)來說明可利用棲地考慮與否曲線的差異情形,以及比較資料的匯集與非匯集間適合度曲線的差異情形,最後經由蒐集相關研究適合度曲線的結果做比較,並由上述所得的結果進一步說明適合度曲線之通用性。
本研究結果顯示,三條溪流速適合度曲線僅台灣間爬岩鰍在頭前溪和烏溪以及粗首鱲在頭前溪和旗山溪間可通用外,明潭吻鰕虎(南台吻鰕虎)、台灣纓口鰍、台灣石則不可通用;而水深適合度曲線,僅明潭吻鰕虎(南台吻鰕虎)在烏溪和旗山溪以及台灣間爬岩鰍在頭前溪和烏溪可通用外,其餘魚種於水深適合度則不可通用;至於底質方面,僅明潭吻鰕虎(南台吻鰕虎)、台灣纓口鰍、台灣間爬岩鰍、台灣石於烏溪和旗山溪底質適合度可互相通用外,粗首鱲則不可互為通用。然於豐、枯水期,由等級相關分析說明三條溪於豐、枯水期可利用棲地分布在部分溪流間仍有相同之處,然而三條溪豐、枯水期流量皆不相同,使得各魚種的適合度曲線在流速、水深、底質皆有所改變,而複迴歸分析說明水質方面,以濁度及導電度對魚類有較顯著的影響,比較棲地利用曲線和偏好曲線結果說明魚類底質適合度與其生活習性較有相關,受可利用棲地之影響程度較小,而資料的匯集與非匯集結果顯示,資料匯集無法用來解釋實際魚類的偏好,而藉由比較其他文獻結果得到不同曲線計算方式以及研究區域都將影響適合度曲線的結果。

Fish suitability curves have been used in habitat modeling to quantify environmental variability and fish ecology for management and conservation of river ecosystems and aquatic resources. Construction of fish suitability curves is costly, therefore applying a suitability curve from a river to another river would be efficient for river management. This thesis studied the transferability of suitability curves among three rivers: the Tochien River, Wu River, and Cishan River that represent the hydrologic regimes of north, middle, and south of Taiwan, respectively.
The fish and environmental data were collected with prepositioned electro-fishing methods by the Taiwan Endemic Species Research Institute from 2009 to 2012. Preference suitability against flow velocity, water depth, and substrate were calculated from a preference index. This study first compared the habitat availability of three rivers plus dry and wet seasons, then examined the suitability transferability between rivers and finally analyzed the relationships between water quality and fish abundance.
Results of correlation analysis indicate that flow velocity suitability is transferable between the Tochien and Wu rivers for Hemimyzon formosanum and between the Tochien and Cishan rivers for Zacco pachycephalus. The water depth suitability is transferable between the Wu and Cishan rivers for Rhinogobius candidianus (Rhinogobius nantaiensis) between the Tochien and Wu rivers for Hemimyzon formosanum.The substrate suitability is transferable among three rivers for Hemimyzon formosanum, Crossostoma lacustre, and Rhinogobius nantaiensis Regression results show that fish abundance is related with water turbidity and conductivity. The utilization suitability and preference suitability results indicate that substrate suitability curve is affected by life history. Comparsion of pooled and non-pooled data shows that pooled data cannot be used to explain actual preference for fish.

摘要 I
Abstract III
謝誌 V
目錄 VI
圖目錄 VIII
表目錄 XII
第一章 前言 1
1.1研究動機與目的 1
1.2論文架構 3
第二章 文獻回顧 4
2.1層級空間系統對棲地和生物間關係 4
2.2魚類棲息地選擇與偏好 6
2.3適合度曲線的研究 7
2.4造成適合度曲線異同的因素 12
2.5適合度曲線的通用性 13
第三章 資料蒐集與方法 16
3.1研究區域 16
3.2資料蒐集 22
3.2.1 魚類資料與環境資料 22
3.2.2調查方式 23
3.2.3 水文資料 24
3.3魚種選取和各魚種概述 25
3.4適合度曲線的建立 30
3.5統計方法 32
3.5.1等級相關檢定 32
3.5.2複迴歸分析 33
第四章 結果與討論 35
4.1資料統計 35
4.1.1魚類數量統計 35
4.1.2水質資料統計 37
4.1.3水文資料統計 38
4.2適合度曲線 40
4.3影響適合度曲線異同的因素 65
4.3.1豐枯水期適合度曲線 65
4.3.2水質對魚類棲地的選擇 74
4.3.3第二類與第三類適合度曲線的比較 77
4.3.4匯集與非匯集資料適合度曲線的變化 94
4.3.5國內適合度曲線研究 97
4.4適合度曲線的通用性 99
第五章 結論與建議 101
5.1結論 101
5.2建議 104
第六章 參考文獻 105

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