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研究生:林書達
研究生(外文):Shu-DaLin
論文名稱:以實驗探討溢流型潰壩的滲流與侵蝕
論文名稱(外文):Experimental study on the seepage and erosion rate of overtopping dam failure
指導教授:戴義欽
指導教授(外文):Yi-Chin Tai
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:水利及海洋工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:河海工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:85
中文關鍵詞:溢流型潰壩侵蝕堆積次層流理論變動座標系統
外文關鍵詞:Unified Coordinate SystemSub-layer modelErosion rate
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:2
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  • 下載下載:28
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土石流在流動的過程中,在底床與土石流體間會有侵蝕與堆積的現象發生。當發生侵蝕或是堆積時,會因整個流動體質量的改變進而影響其流動行為。因此,針對流體與底床交互作用的研究是近幾年來頗受重視的研究課題。本論文透過流槽實驗來探討土石流底床的侵蝕率,理論的部分主要以Fracarrolo and Capart (2002) 所提出的次層流模型(Sub-layer model)作為土石流的理論模型,並探討在變動座標系統下的次層流模型所推演的底床侵蝕率。
本研究主要探討溢流型潰壩時的底床侵蝕率,透過實驗分析非凝聚性顆粒的壩體在不同的單位寬度流量及渠道坡度條件下,壩體發生破壞時的條件、方式及侵蝕的動態行為。首先由影像分析得到水對壩體的滲透速度、滲透係數,預估潰壩發生的可能機制以及時間點;其次,當水溢流過壩體,在不同初始的條件之下,對壩體作侵蝕率的探討;最後將實驗所得之侵蝕率與理論模型相互比較分析。

In process of debris flows, there could be mass exchange (entrainment or deposit) across at the interface between the flowing layer and the stagnant bed. The eroded or deposited mass and the corresponding change of the geometry of the basal surface will change the dynamic behavior of the flowing layer. Therefore, the study of the interaction between the fluids and the bed is one of the hot research topics recently. In this thesis, experiments are performed to investigate the erosion rate. The concept of Fracarrolo & Capart (2002) together with the Unified Coordinate System is adopted, where the erosion rate measured in experiments is compared to the theoretical prediction.
The present study is focused on the erosion of the type of overtopping of dam failure. In the experiments, we measured the seepage velocity in the dam body, which is crucial for the type of dam failure. Besides, the measured value of the permeable coefficient agrees well with the Darcy's law. By means of analyzing the evolution of the basal surface of cohesionless material, one can calculate the erosion rate under different conditions of water supply as well as channel inclination angle. We compare the results of the experiment with the theory.

摘要 Ⅰ
Abstract Ⅱ
誌謝 Ⅲ
目錄 Ⅳ
表目錄 Ⅶ
圖目錄 Ⅷ
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 文獻回顧 2
1.2.1 堰塞湖的成形類型 2
1.2.2 潰壩的發生及分類 4
1.2.3 溢流型潰壩 5
1.2.4 滲流潰壩 6
1.2.5 土石流研究的發展過程 7
1.3 研究方法 8
第二章 理論架構 9
2.1 變動底床的侵蝕與堆積行為 9
2.1.1 次層流假設與連續方程式的推導 9
2.1.2 侵蝕率 11
2.1.3 變動座標與通用座標系統的合併 15
2.1.4 以變動座標系統求侵蝕率 17
2.1.5 兩座標系統兼侵蝕率的比較 19
2.2 滲流理論模型 21
2.2.1 達西定律(Darcy’s law) 21
第三章 實驗規24
3.1 實驗內容 24
3.1.1 實驗設置準備 25
3.1.2 實驗設備介紹: 25
3.2 實驗參數 30
3.2.1 壩形設計 32
3.2.2 流量設計 32
3.3 實驗-滲流線分析 33
3.3.1 實驗步驟 33
3.3.2 數據分析 34
3.4 實驗-侵蝕率探討: 36
3.4.1 侵蝕率數據分析 36
第四章 實驗結果與討論 43
4.1 滲流線分析結果 43
4.1.1 顆粒分佈不均對滲流的影響 43
4.1.2 滲透線角度 46
4.1.3 三角形壩不同流量對滲流的影響 47
4.1.4 三角形壩不同坡度對滲流的影響 50
4.1.5 壩形不同對滲流的影響 53
4.1.6 定水頭試驗 56
4.1.7 滲流結論 58
4.2 侵蝕率分析結果 59
4.2.1 三角形壩不同流量對侵蝕率的影響 59
4.2.2 壩形不同對侵蝕率的影響 63
4.2.3 不同理論侵蝕率Chezy係數的探討 66
第五章 結論與建議 81
5.1 結論 81
5.2 建議 82
參考文獻 83

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C. Klug and K. Cashman (1996). Permeability development in vesiculating magmas: Implications for fragmentation. Bull Volcanol, 58, 87– 100.

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G.A. Fox, M.L. Chu-Agor and G.V. Wilson (2007). Seepage erosion: A significant mechanism of stream bank failure. Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) World Environmental and Water Resources Congress, May 15-19, 2007, Tampa: 1-14.

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廖元賢(2010),「以變動座標描述次層流理論模型之應用」,國立暨南大學土木工程研究所碩士論文。

經濟部水利署水利規劃試驗所,「草嶺堰塞湖淤積及地形測量專題報告= Long term water resources planning for landslide induced lake at Tsao-Lin report of l」,(2002)
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