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研究生:梁筱筑
研究生(外文):Hsiao-ChuLiang
論文名稱:政治及經濟議題之幽默溝通分析:以《全民最大黨》為例
論文名稱(外文):Analyzing Humorous Communication on Social and Political Issues:The case study of Celebrity Imitation Show
指導教授:謝菁玉謝菁玉引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shelley Ching-yu Hsieh
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系碩博士班
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:英文
論文頁數:130
中文關鍵詞:幽默語言的普遍理論腳本對立邏輯機制不對稱方法口語諷刺反諷暗示
外文關鍵詞:GTVHscript oppositionlogical mechanismAsymmetry Approachverbal ironyironic cues
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本論文以「幽默語言的普遍理論」(the General Theory of Verbal Humor, Attardo, 2001),「不對稱方法」(Asymmetry Approach, Viana, 2010),以及「幽默語言的心理空間架構」(the mental space structure of verbal humor, Kihara, 2005) 為理論基礎,研究台灣家喻戶曉的模仿秀《全民最大黨》之幽默言談現象。語料擷取自《全民最大黨》中之政治及經濟議題,旨在討論以下三層面:(一) 如何以幽默標準判斷《全民最大黨》中之幽默言談,(二) 言談中的嘲弄是如何融入在幽默中藉以傳達對社會或政治議題之批評,(三) 語料中有何種其他修辭策略能促進幽默或諷刺?
研究結果顯示:(一) 幽默言談中存在著腳本不對稱之特性,其中突出腳本扮演妙語(punch line)的地位,出現在腳本的結尾,並且針對背景腳本的主角隱含批判。(二) 腳本對立(script opposition)與邏輯機制(logical mechanism)可以成為幽默準則,決定幽默如何出現在腳本中,其中,腳本對立是展現幽默及批判效果的元素之一。同時呼應腳本間之關係,突出的腳本能扮演腳本對立的地位,用以嘲弄背景腳本中之主角。(三) 邏輯機制中之正確推理(correct reasoning)與錯誤推理(faulty reasoning)可用以解釋幽默文本,其中有較多正確推理的實例可以解釋幽默中不調和的現象。(四) 透過「幽默語言的心理空間架構」證實突出腳本中的口語諷刺(verbal irony),彰顯非事實假想產生反諷蘊含。(五) 根據Viana (2010)的研究顯示,突出腳本用以嘲弄背景腳本中之對象,但本文指出嘲弄對象常由背景腳本轉移至突出腳本,此現象亦成為另一種嘲弄的策略。(六) 玩弄新詞和韻腳帶給觀眾愉悅感受,而反諷暗示(ironic cues)的用法如誇飾的情緒表達、反事實現象和語尾助詞皆是表演者常用於展現主觀意識的反諷蘊含技巧。
藉由研究《全民最大黨》之幽默言談現象,顯示幽默與諷刺常相繼出現在同一主題中,反諷尤其存在於非事實假想,文中亦提出更多展現幽默及諷刺之修辭策略。

Humor is a common and effective rhetoric strategy in conveying ideas. Mingling information and entertainment is a popular media trend to circulate hard news. The data in this study are retrieved from a renowned impersonation show, Celebrity Imitation Show, which deftly dodges criticism and also criticizes social or political issues with its peculiar points of view. The thesis aims at probing into scripts from this program in order to investigate the characteristics of humorous expressions by means of the General Theory of Verbal Humor (Attardo, 2001), the Asymmetry Approach (Viana, 2010), and the mental space structure of verbal humor (Kihara, 2005). The data are analyzed from three perspectives: (1) How can humorous expressions be identified through humor criteria in the Celebrity Imitation Show? (2) How is the ridicule in this show integrated in humorous expressions to convey criticism toward political or social issues? (3) What other rhetoric strategies enhance the humor or irony in the data?
The results show that (1) There are asymmetrical attributes in humorous expressions, in which the foreground script functions as a punch line at the end of scripts and implies criticism toward the target in the background script. (2) Script opposition is an element for presenting humorous or critical effects. Corresponding to the relationship between scripts, a foreground script is able to fuction as script opposition to ridicule the previous target in a background script. (3) Humorous texts can be reasoned using both correct and faulty reasoning from logical mechanism, and there are more cases of correct reasoning to resolve the incongruities found in humor. (4) The mental space structure of verbal irony presents derisive humor from the foreground script. The ironic implicature arises from the counterfactual assumptions shared by both the speaker and the listener. (5) The shift of targets from background script to foreground script is another strategy to make fun of different incidents occurring in this show. (6) Other rhetorical strategies explain how the data without the logical mechanism exhibit humorous or ironic effects, such as playing on neologisms, rhymes, extreme case formulations, counterfactuality, or utterance-final particles.
In sum, the asymmetrical attributes in scripts produce the humor in humorous expressions, and irony can be elicited from counterfactual assumptions within these expressions. Through this thesis, we reveal the coincidences between humor and ironic intent and provide more diverse rhetoric strategies to show humor or irony.

中文摘要 i
Abstract ii
Acknowledgements iv
Table of Contents v
List of Tables & Figures vii
Convention & Abbreviation lists viii
Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION 9
1.1 Motivation and purpose of the study 9
1.2 The Celebrity Imitation Show 12
1.3 Research questions 14
1.4 The structure of the thesis 15
Chapter 2. METHODOLOGY AND THEORETICAL BACKGROUND 17
2.1 Data collection 17
2.2 Theoretical Frameworks 19
2.2.1 Attardo’s (2001) General Theory of Verbal Humor 19
2.2.1.1 Script Opposition 21
2.2.1.2 Logical Mechanism 23
2.2.2 Viana’s (2010) Asymmetry Approach 25
2.2.3 Kihara’s (2005) the mental space structure of verbal irony 26
2.3 Intern summary 28
Chapter 3. LITERATURE REVIEW 30
3.1 Humor 30
3.1.1 The representative theories of humor 30
3.1.2 The pragmatics of humor 33
3.2 Irony 35
3.2.1 Irony and sarcasm 35
3.2.2 The pragmatics of irony 37
3.3 Parody 39
3.4 Verbal parody, irony and humor 40
3.5 Intern summary 42
Chapter 4. SCRIPT ANALYSIS IN HUMOROUS COMMUNICATION 44
4.1 The asymmetry of scripts 44
4.1.1 Sarcasm against the target 44
4.1.2 Nonsense against the target 49
4.1.3 Overlapping and opposition of the scripts 53
4.2 The reasoning of scripts 58
4.2.1 Correct reasoning 59
4.2.2 Faulty reasoning 64
4.2.3 Distribution of reasoning 68
4.3 Verbal irony in the foreground script 69
4.4 Target shift 74
4.5 Intern summary 78
Chapter 5. CONTEXTUALIZATION CUES OF HUMOR AND IRONY 81
5.1 Ironic commentary in humorous communication 81
5.1.1 Ironic insults 81
5.1.2 Ironic compliments 86
5.2 The recognition of humor 89
5.2.1 Neologism 90
5.2.2 Taiwanese transliteration 93
5.2.3 Rhyme 96
5.3 Ironic cues 98
5.3.1 Hyperbole and extreme case formulations 98
5.3.2 Counterfactuality and discrepancy between an utterance and reality 102
5.3.3 Utterance-final particle 107
5.3.3.1 Feedback sequences 108
5.3.3.2 Mixed sequences 111
5.4 Intern summary 115
Chapter 6. CONCLUSIONS 118
6.1 Summary of the findings 118
6.2 The contributions of this thesis 123
6.3 Suggestions for future research 125
REFERENCES 127

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