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研究生:林志勳
研究生(外文):Chih-HsunLin
論文名稱:感知訓練對台灣國小一年級學生在辨識國語四聲的功效
論文名稱(外文):The Effectiveness of Perceptual Training on Taiwanese First-Graders’ Identification of Mandarin Tones
指導教授:陳世威陳世威引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shih-Wei Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系在職專班
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:英文
論文頁數:90
中文關鍵詞:感知訓練國語四聲國小一年級學生
外文關鍵詞:perceptual trainingMandarin tonesfirst-graders
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對許多國小低年級的孩子而言,分辦二聲及三聲時常會有混淆的現象。許多國外文獻結果顯示感知訓練對外國人分辦國語四聲有其顯著效果。雖然學習母語及外語的難度並不相同,但某些部份的機制是共通的。本研究旨在探討感知訓練對台灣國小一年級學生在辨識國語四聲之成效。本研究以國小一年級學生為研究對象,實驗組及參照組各為24人。實驗組接受6週,每週4次的感知訓練(每次5分鐘)。同樣的訓練時間,參照組進行一般的傳統聲調教學。另外,在6週的訓練期結束之後,實驗組學生必須填寫一份問卷,以了解他們對感知訓練的態度。研究結果顯示:二聲及三聲較難辦識,且兩組在一聲及四聲的辨識上,都有顯著或趨近於顯著的進步。在二聲及三聲的辨識上,實驗組並沒有優於參照組之訓練成效。
更進一步對兩組的錯誤模式進行分析之後,發現兩組都有將三聲誤認為二聲的情況。在分別接受不同訓練方式6週後,兩組都沒有顯著的進步。二聲的誤認情況在兩組則不相同,實驗組並沒有顯著進步。參照組則在中測到後測之間有顯著的進步,然而,其二聲的前測成績原本就很好,最差的是中測,而後測的成績只比前測好一些。實驗組在一聲及四聲上並沒有明顯的錯誤模式。參照組的四聲也是如此,但在一聲方面,參照組一開始有將一聲誤認為二聲之情況,直到中測才獲得改善。
實驗組的問卷分析顯示:這些學生喜歡感知訓練,且認為在訓練過程中,當大多數人答錯後,由訓練者所提供之題目對照(tonal contrasts)有益於他們的聲調學習。因此,國小一年級老師可將感知訓練視為傳統教學方式以外的另一種選擇,因為感知訓練之施行方式較有彈性,且對國小一年級學生而言,也較傳統教學方式有趣許多。

To many native Mandarin Chinese speaking children, discriminating between Tone 2 and Tone 3 poses a major problem. Perceptual training has been shown to be effective in nonnative speakers’ identification of Mandarin tones. Since some common mechanisms exist in native and nonnative speakers’ language learning, this present study investigates the efficacy of perceptual training in the native children’s identification of Mandarin tones. Two classes of first graders were assigned to either an experimental or a control group, and received a pretest, an initial, four-week training, a mid-test, a final, two-week training, and a post-test. A separate questionnaire was administered to subjects of the experimental group only to investigate their attitude toward the perceptual training. The twenty-four first graders in the experimental group received the perceptual training, while the other twenty-four subjects in the control group received traditional tone teaching. As the results showed, Tone 1 and Tone 4 were easier to identify than Tone 2 and Tone 3, consistent with findings from previous studies. Furthermore, both groups had significant improvement in identifying Tone 4 and Tone 1 while no improvement in Tone 2 and Tone 3 was observed, indicating lack of training effect specific to the perceptual training program.
Results of further error pattern analyses showed that Tone 3 was easily misidentified as Tone 2 across all the three tests and no improvement was observed in both groups over the six-week training period. Misidentification of Tone 2 as Tone 3 differed in the two groups. The controls’ misidentification of Tone 2 improved in the post-test while the same error lasted over the six-week training period in the experiment group. No clear error pattern of Tone 1 can be discerned in the experiment group, while Tone 1 was significantly misidentified as Tone 2 by the controls in the pre-test. To identify Tone 4 was easiest to both groups and no specific error pattern was observed since the pretest.
The results of the questionnaire showed that the experimental subjects like the perceptual training and regarded the tonal contrasts of the target items provided in the training process as very useful to their forming of tonal categories. Thus, the perceptual training may be adopted by teachers in first-grade classes to provide their students with flexible and interesting practice as an alternative to the traditional teaching method.

Abstract (Chinese)…………………………………………………………………..i
Abstract (English)…………………………………………………………………...ii
Acknowledgements………………………………………………………………….iv
Table of Contents……………………………………………………………………vi
List of Tables………………………………………………………………………...ix
List of Figures………………………………………………………………………..x
Chapter One Introduction..………………………………………………………..1
1.1 Background and Motivation…...……………………………………………....1
1.2 Purposes of the Study...………………………………………………………..3
1.3 Research Questions..…………………………………………………………..4
1.4 Definition of Terms………..…………………………………………………..4
1.5 Overview of the Study…..…………………………………………………….5
Chapter Two Literature Review………….……………………………………….7
2.1 Tones..…………………………………………………………………………7
2.2 The Functions and Acoustic Characteristics of Mandarin Tones..…………….8
2.3 Research on the Perception and Identification of Tones…..…………………12
2.3.1 Native Speakers’ Perception and Identification of Mandarin Tones…...12
2.3.2 Nonnative Speakers’ Perception and Identification of Tones……….....18
2.3.2.1 Three L2 Perceptual Models..……………………………………18
Speech Learning Model (SLM)……………….………..………….....19
Native Language Magnet Model (NLM)……………. ……………...20
Perceptual Assimilation Model (PAM)…………………..…………..22

2.3.2.2 Benefit of F0 Dimensions to L2 Tonal Perception.….…………..25
2.4 The Research of L2 Learners’ Perceptual Training..…………………………26
2.5 Summary…..…………………………………………………………………28
Chapter Three Methodology….………………………………………………….31
3.1 Participants..………………………………………………………………….31
3.2 Test Items and Instruments..…………………………………………………32
3.3 Procedures..…………………………………………………………………..33
Pretest..……………………………………………………………………….33
Training of the First Stage……..……………………………………………..35
Mid-test..……………………………………………………………………..37
Training of the Second Stage…..…………………………………………….37
Post-test…..…………………………………………………………………..38
Questionnaire……………..…………………………………………………..38
Chapter Four Results and Discussion…….……………………………………...39
4.1 Results of the Tests…..……………………………………………………….39
4.2 Error Pattern Analyses……..…………………………………………………48
4.3 Results of the Questionnaire…..……………………………………………...53
4.4 Discussion………..…………………………………………………………..59
4.4.1 Possible Reason for the Lack of Specific Training Effect..…………….62
4.4.2 Error Pattern…..………………………………………………………..63
4.4.3 Questionnaire…..……………………………………………………….67
Chapter Five Conclusion, Implication, and Suggestions..……………………...70
5.1 Summary of the Findings..…………………………………………………...70
5.2 Educational Implication..…………………………………………………….73
Normal Courses..……………………………………………………………..73
5.3 Limitations of This Study…………...………………………………………..74
5.4 Suggestions for Further Studies..……………………………………………..76
References…………………………………………………………………………...77
Appendices…………………………………………………………………………..82
Appendix A Informed Consent (Chinese).................................................................82
Appendix B Items for the Training……………………………….………………...83
Appendix C Items of Pre-test and Post-test…………………..…………………….88
Appendix D Questionnaire (Chinese): Experimental Subjects’ Opinions about the Perceptual Training…………………………………………………...89

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