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研究生:陳慧琴
研究生(外文):FayChen
論文名稱:戰爭與倫理:歐布萊恩越戰小說中的他者臉龐
論文名稱(外文):War and Ethics: Levinasian Faces in Tim O’Brien’s Novels
指導教授:賴俊雄賴俊雄引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chung-Hsiung Lai
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系碩博士班
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:英文
論文頁數:199
中文關鍵詞:列維納斯歐布萊恩戰爭倫理臉龐社群正義創傷性別
外文關鍵詞:LevinasO’Brienwarethicsfacecommunityjusticetraumagender
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戰爭理想的宗旨在追求正義與和平,但其大規模的殺戮卻是違背倫理及人性尊嚴的暴力。這種正義與暴力的矛盾張力開啟跨越當代哲學及文學研究的新面向與相關議題,極需學界的探討與思辯。因此本論文之目的即嘗試以法國思想家列維納斯倫理哲學的「臉龐」觀詮釋歐布萊恩的戰爭小說中各種「面對面」的關係以及其帶來的倫理困境與希望,藉由探討戰爭與倫理之間內在的矛盾張力,尋求一種可以更適切回應他者的可能性。美國作家歐布萊恩小說的意義可以是個人對倫理的追求,也可以是人類集體生命面對多種面相的倫理回應。小說中呈現的殘酷現實讓我們得以在極致的非人性中審視列維納斯的倫理觀。同時,也使我們有機會以列維納斯的倫理洞見開展故事底蘊的複雜交錯的人性困境以及對和平的渴望。因此本論文探討以下提問:保護社群的兵役義務以及他者倫理間的衝突是否有調解的空間?個人如何面對敵人臉龐「汝不可殺人」的命令、看待死去同袍的情感責任、試圖走出戰後心理創傷?如何處理戰爭型塑的性別形象及戰後性別關係的重建?論文結論就他者倫理及越戰經驗進行分析,進而釐清列維納斯倫理觀及歐布萊恩小說中的啟發及侷限,為倫理為第一哲學以及面對面接觸的哲學思想進行補充。
War is ideally a means to achieve justice and peace; yet, in killing and blood sacrifice, the nature of war frequently betrays the fundamental of both ethics and humanity. The paradox between justice and violence presents an opportunity for an intertwined study of contemporary philosophy and literature, a study which satisfy an urgent need for scholarly intervention and debate. This dissertation situates Tim O’Brien’s Vietnam War narratives alongside Emmanuel Levinas’s notion of the “face” of the Other. It explores the various face-to-face encounters in O’Brien’s novels and the resulting ethical problems. Through examining the tension inherent in war and ethics, the current study seeks to introduce the possibilities of responding to the Other more ethically. O’Brien’s novels, read individually, are about soldiers’ quest to make the right/ethical choices in life. However, read collectively, O’Brien’s works deal with ethical encounters in all aspects in life. The reality of war, as depicted in O’Brien’s novels, enables us a rare moment to focus on Levinas’s difficult commandment of ethical behavior in situations of extreme, unrelenting inhumanity. Therefore, this dissertation attempts to answer the following: How does one answer the community’s call to fight in a war? When facing the enemy, is it possible to reconcile the attainment of justice and the ethics of “Thou Shalt not Kill”? What good does one respond to the ghosts of the dead and how does on face the trauma of war? How are the constructions of masculinity and femininity affected by war, and how does one rebuild an ethical gender relationship after the war? Through examining the contributions and limitations of Levinasian ethics and O’Brien’s narratives, this dissertation hopes to add to the understanding of face-to-face ethics, not only in the context of war but also in various aspects of life.
Table of Contents

Chapter One Introduction to War and Face-to-Face Ethics 1
Chapter Two Facing the Face of the Community 46
Chapter Three Facing the Face of the Enemy 82
Chapter Four Facing the Face of the Dead in Combat Trauma 115
Chapter Five Facing the Face of Women 146
Conclusion Difficult Peace and Tenacious Messianism 179
Works Cited 190

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