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研究生:吳貞慧
研究生(外文):Zhen-HuiWu
論文名稱:論漢語存現結構
論文名稱(外文):Mandarin Existential-Presentative Constructions
指導教授:李惠琦李惠琦引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hui-Chi Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系在職專班
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:英文
論文頁數:168
中文關鍵詞:存現結構存現動詞時態標記地方詞組後置名詞組
外文關鍵詞:existential-presentative constructionaspect markerlocative phrasepostverbal NP
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本論文探討漢語存現結構中,存現動詞與時態標記「著」、「了」及地方詞之間的關係。本文並對存現動詞在不同地方詞組及動詞後名詞的分佈做了交叉檢驗。先前的存現結構研究皆著重於理論性、及單獨性之研究,並無將影響存現動詞出現之因素做一系統之整理。然而語言是活的,研究不能只侷限於理論之探討,更應著重於實務之分析。
不同於以往的研究,本文將研究資料的範圍擴大至語料庫及奇摩網站的語料收集。研究結果發現,所有出現在存現結構中的動詞不再侷限於以往典型的存在動詞,像是「有」、 「是」、「坐」、 和「放」。如同Goldberg (2003)所說,結構是形式與意義的配對,每個結構都有其獨特的意義存在,並且無法從既有的結構中推斷而知。根據Goldberg的論點,本文推論,凡是能進入到[Locative + V-zhe/-le + NP]結構中的動詞,且能呈現「存在」意的動詞,皆可稱之為存現動詞。本研究也顯示,此結構可再細分為四類: (i) [Locative + V-zhe/-le + NP], (ii) [Locative + V-zhe + NP], (iii) [Locative + V-le + NP] 以及(iv) [Locative + V + NP]。而每一類都各自表現不同之意義。不同於以往的研究結果,像是「環繞」 、 「保留」 及「流露」這些非典型的動詞確實可出現在此結構中,並且帶有「存在」意。此外,本研究中也發現一特殊動詞組合[V-滿]也可進入此結構。
為了更增加本研究的可信度,本研究從語料庫及網站上篩選了35個動詞,並配合時態標記的使用,針對中文母語者之語言能力及實際表現分別做了一系列統計。資料發現,中文母語者之時態標記的使用情形,不論在語言能力或是實際表現上並非相當一致。從此結果中,體現了時態標記在真實語境中的使用狀況,並非如先前學者研究,是可互換而不影響其整體意義。而其整體結構的意義必須建立在動詞與時態標記兩者之間。此外,本文也對地方詞組與存現動詞的配對做了相當的探討。結果顯示,介詞「在」在地方詞組中皆有弱化的現象。最後,本文也對動詞後的名詞組進行探討,結果顯示,當存現動詞的特性愈不具體、明確時,其後的名詞組也愈抽象化。

The research investigates the aspectuality and the locative phrases of Mandarin existential-presentative constructions. In order to achieve this, it examines the distribution of existential-presentative verbs in different locative templates, as well as postverbal NP. All previous related studies were theoretical in nature, and most only focused on the semantic meaning of the verbs, and the aspect markers 著-zhe and 了-le. However, since language is living and will change over time, it is not possible to study it from only one perspective.
Unlike all earlier studies, which were carried out using existing data, this research used data from the Sinica Balanced Database and Yahoo! Website. The results show that the so-called existential-presentative verbs are no longer limited to items like 有you ‘have’ , 是si ‘is’, 坐zuo ‘sit’, 放fang ‘put’ and so on (see Li and Thompson, 1981). Just as Goldberg (2003: 4) stated, “construction is a pair of form and meaning, and each construction has its own meaning.” In our findings, the structure can be further divided into four types: (i) [Locative + V-zhe/-le + NP], (ii) [Locative + V-zhe + NP], (iii) [Locative + V-le + NP] and (iv) [Locative + V + NP].And each type has its own meaning. Thus the meaning of the construction can not be inferred from other previously established ones. Based on Goldberg’s theory, verbs can be named as existential-presentative verbs only if verbs can come into the construction [Locative + V-zhe/-le + NP] and present the meaning of existence. Therefore, verbs that appear in the existential-presentative construction are not restricted to the classical existential-presentative ones like 有you ‘have’ , 坐zuo ‘sit’ and 放fang ‘put’ any more. In our observation, verbs like 環繞huanrao ‘surround’, 保留baoliu ‘retain’ and 流露liulu ‘reveal’ can even appear in existential-presentative constructions. In addition, a special form [V-滿man] has now also become an existential-presentative construction.
In order to make this study more rigorous, in the first step, it asks native speakers to decide whether the aspect markers -zhe and -le can be used with a list of 35 verbs that fit into the construction [Locative + V-zhe/-le + NP]. In the second step, it statistically examines native speakers’ performance with regard to the distribution of the aspect markers -zhe and -le. We then undertake a comparative analysis of the two results, and examine the locative phrases that appear in existential-presentative constructions. We believe that different verb types are also the important factors that influence the distribution of different locative phrases. In view of this, we carried out a cross-analysis of the verbs and locative phrases. In the last part of this work, we examine the postverbal NP to see if the type of verb or locative phrase used will affect the type of noun that appears in the postverbal position.

摘要...................................................... i
Abstract................................................ iii
Acknowledgements.......................................... v
Table of Content........................................ vii
List of Abbreviations.................................... xi
List of Tables ......................................... xii
List of Figures ........................................xiii
Chapter 1 Introduction.....................................1
1.1 A Brief Introduction of EPC in English and Mandarin....1
1.2 The Definition of Mandarin Existential-Presentative Construction.................4
1.3 The Motivation for This Study..........................5
1.4 The Purpose of the Study...............................7
1.5 Methodology............................................8
1.5.1 Participants ….......................................8
1.5.2 Data Source .........................................9
1.5.3 The Definition of Competence and Performance .......12
1.5.4 Procedure of the Data Analysis and Categorization ..12
1.6 The Organization of the Thesis........................14
Chapter 2 Literature Review...............................15
2.1 Analysis of Existential-Presentative Constructions....16
2.1.1 Existential-Presentative Constructions in English...16
2.1.2 Existential-Presentative Constructions in Mandarin..17
2.1.3 Accounts of the Postverbal NP.......................20
2.2 Considering Aspect....................................22
2.2.1 Semantics Types of Verbs and Constraints on Imperfective Aspect Marker-zhe............................26
2.2.2 Semantics Types of Verbs and Constraints on Perfective Aspect Marker -le .............................30
2.3 Summary...............................................33
Chapter 3 Classification of Existential-Presentative Verbs.....................................................34
3.1 Introduction..........................................34
3.2 The Analysis of Mandarin Existential-Presentative Verbs.....................................................34
3.2.1 The Categorization of Mandarin Existential-Presentative Verbs........................................34
3.2.2 The Distribution of Verbs with Different Aspect Markers...................................................37
3.2.3 Comparison between the Native Speakers’ Competence and
Performance...............................................41
3.3 The Analysis of Four Types of Existential-Presentative Verbs ....................................................43
3.3.1 G1: Verbs Have the Same Frequency for the Attachment of the Aspect Marker -zhe and -le.........................47
3.3.2 G2: Verbs Have Higher Frequency for the Attachment of the Aspect Marker -z.....he...............................52
3.3.3 G3: Verbs Have Higher Frequency for the Attachment of the Aspect Marker -le.....................................64
3.3.4 G4: Verbs without Any Aspect Marker ................66
3.4 An Analysis of a Special Form [V滿-zhe/-le]...........69
3.4.1 Verbs in V滿 Have the Same Frequency for the Attachment of the Aspect Marker -zhe and -le..............71
3.4.2 G2: Verbs in V滿 Have Higher Frequency for the Attachment of the Aspect Marker -zhe......................79
3.4.3 G3: Verbs in V滿 Have Higher Frequency for the Attachment of the Aspect Marker -le.......................82
3.4.4 Verbs in V滿 without Any Aspect Marker..............86
3.5 Summary...............................................87
Chapter 4 The Relationship Between Existential-Presentative Verbs and Locative Phrases ...............................92
4.1 Introduction..........................................92
4.2 The Syntax Analysis of the Existential-Presentative Construction..............................................94
4.2.1 The Classification of the Locative Phrase...........94
4.2.2 The Distribution of Verbs in Different Locative Phrases...................................................96
4.3 The Relationship between Locative Phrases and Existential-Presentative Verbs............................98
4.3.1 The Analysis of the Relationship between Verbs and L1 Locatives ................................................99
4.3.2 The Analysis of the Relationship between Verbs and L2 Locatives ...............................................101
4.3.3 The Analysis of the Relationship between Verbs and L3 Locatives................................................117
4.4 The Relationships among the Locative Phrase, Existential-Presentative Verbs and Postverbal NPs .......119
4.4.1 The Analysis of the Postverbal NP in V1 ...........120
4.4.2 The Analysis of the Postverbal NP in V2 ...........122
4.4.3 The Analysis of the Postverbal NP in V3 ...........124
4.4.4 The Analysis of the Postverbal NP in V4 ...........126
4.4.5 The Analysis of the Postverbal NP in V5 ...........127
4.4.6. The Analysis of the Postverbal NP in V6 ..........129
4.5 Summary..............................................130
Chapter 5 Conclusion.....................................134
References ..............................................141
Appendix ................................................149
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