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研究生:邱莉苓
研究生(外文):Li-LingChiu
論文名稱:紙本字典、口袋型電子字典、及網路字典對於國中生字彙辨識與記憶之效益
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Using Printed, Pocket Electronic, and Online Type-in Dictionaries on EFL Junior High School Students’ Vocabulary Recognition and Retention
指導教授:劉繼仁劉繼仁引用關係
指導教授(外文):Gi-Zen Liu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系在職專班
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:英文
論文頁數:151
中文關鍵詞:紙本字典口袋型電子字典網路字典字彙辨識與記憶
外文關鍵詞:printed dictionariespocket electronic dictionariesonline type-in dictionariesword recognition and retention
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近年來,隨著電子字典的普及化,有越來越多的研究關注各種字典應用對於字彙辨識與記憶的幫助。然而,多數研究都以高等教育為主,未必適用於中等教育環境中。到目前為止,國內也尚無研究同時探討多種類型的字典對於國中生字彙學習的影響。因此,本研究旨在探討國中生使用紙本字典、口袋型電子字典、及網路字典對於字彙辨識與記憶的效益。
本研究採用質性及量化的混合式研究,受測者為高雄市某市立國中三十三位七年級學生。他們須分別使用這三種字典查閱三篇文章中的單字,每篇文章裡有五個指定必查的單字。每位學生讀完文章後隨即接受字彙測驗,分別在兩週及四週後接受延遲字彙測驗。
量化資料的分析來自字彙測驗及兩次延遲字彙測驗的分數,質性資料的分析來自問卷及訪談十位學生的結果。本研究的主要發現如下:
1. 這三種字典的使用對於國中生字彙辨識都有幫助,其中又以紙本字典對於字彙記憶效益最佳。花費較長時間查閱紙本字典,對於字彙記憶較有幫助。相反的,電子字典使用起來方便快速,卻對於字型與字義的記憶較無顯著效益。口袋型電子字典及網路字典對於國中生字彙辨識的短暫幫助可能源自於新奇效應(novelty effect)。此外,使用電子字典時,學生有時會分心使用其他與查閱單字無關的功能,如:影音檔、內建遊戲等。
2. 學生在使用網路字典時專心度較差,容易因其提供的其他功能而分心,故無法確認網路字典的呈現方式是否能有助於國中生的字彙辨識與記憶。
整體而言,電子字典能短暫吸引國中生的注意力,而紙本字典較有助於字彙辨識與記憶。希望此研究結果能提供在國中任教的英文教師對於引薦學生在課堂中使用字典時的一些想法,國中生的心智仍尚在發展中,易受外在影響而浮動,電子字典雖然方便易用,但其提供的額外功能對國中生而言反而是導致分心的因素之一。建議國中的英文教師能依學生的學習動機、目標等推薦合適的字典,也可試著先以電子字典引起學生的興趣,再以紙本字典幫助學生專注於字彙記憶。

The value of dictionary use with regard to vocabulary learning is the subject of some controversy in the English as a foreign language (EFL) literature. In recent years, along with the rise of electronic dictionaries, this issue has gained more attention. While both printed dictionaries and electronic ones have their supporters, electronic dictionaries are becoming more popular in practice. Many studies have investigated dictionary use, but most of them have been conducted in a higher educational context, and thus are not necessarily applicable to a secondary educational one. Therefore, this study aimed to obtain empirical evidence about effects of using printed, pocket electronic and online type-in dictionaries (PD, PED, and OTID) on vocabulary recognition and retention in a local junior high school.
A mixed quantitative and qualitative research methodology was adopted in this work. Thirty-three seventh graders from a junior high school in Kaohsiung City participated in the study. They were asked to use all three types of dictionaries to finish reading tasks, and then were tested not only on their vocabulary recognition immediately after the reading tasks, but also on their word retention two and four weeks later. Questionnaires and interviews were used to examine the participants’ attitudes and reflections after using the three types of dictionaries. The data obtained from the study were then analyzed from two perspectives. First, the quantitative data, the scores of the follow-up, delayed vocabulary tests 1 and 2 were collected. The SPSS 17.0 system was applied to investigate differences among the effects of using the three types of dictionaries on vocabulary recognition and retention. Second, the qualitative data, the responses and opinions of all the participants to the questionnaire and interviews with ten selected participants were classified and described by the researcher to further understand their attitudes and reflections after using the three types of dictionaries. The main findings are summarized as follows:
1. The use of all three types of dictionaries could enhance EFL junior high school students’ vocabulary recognition, while the use of printed dictionaries could better enhance their word retention. Spending more time consulting a printed dictionary helped the participants to retain the words better. In contrast, the fast retrieval speed of an electronic dictionary (OTID or PED) may not impress junior high school students with the word forms and meanings to such a significant degree. The temporary positive effect of using electronic dictionaries (OTID and PED) on EFL junior high school students’ vocabulary recognition might be due to the novelty of such devices. However, there was little positive influence on the students’ word retention. Furthermore, the participants’ attention towards the electronic dictionaries was sometimes distracted by information or functions unrelated to looking up words.
2. Whether the display used with the OTID can enhance EFL junior high school students’ vocabulary recognition and retention remains an open question, because the participants might not pay full attention when using the OTID. Therefore, the effects of the display used with the OTID might be overwhelmed by other factors.
In sum, the results indicated that electronic dictionaries could temporarily attract junior high school students’ attention, while printed dictionaries could help them to retain the target words more effectively.
It is anticipated that the results of this work can provide English teachers in junior high schools with useful ideas when they are integrating dictionary use into the classroom. However, less experienced junior high school students may not be able to fully utilize the advantages of electronic dictionaries, and the various functions that that they have might be distractions to them. Electronic dictionaries could thus be used as a gateway to arouse students’ interest to use dictionaries, while printed dictionaries could be used to help students to retain the word forms and meanings.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Abstract (Chinese) i
Abstract (English) iii
Acknowledgements v
Table of Contents vi
List of Tables x
List of Figures xii

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background and Motivation 1
1.2 Purpose of the Study 3
1.3 Significance of the Study 3
1.4 Definition of Terms 4

CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 7
2.1 Introduction 8
2.2 Forms and Content of Dictionaries 8
2.2.1 The Advantages of Printed Dictionaries (PD), Pocket Electronic Dictionaries (PED), and Online Type-in Dictionaries (OTID) 8
2.2.2 The Form of Printed and Electronic Dictionaries 13
2.2.3 The Content of Printed and Electronic Dictionaries 16
2.2.4 The Effects of Monolingual, Bilingual, and Bilingualized Dictionary Use on Vocabulary Learning 19
2.3 The Effects of Dictionary Use on Word Retention 21
2.3.1 Word Retention 22
2.3.2 Various Dictionaries and Word Retention 25
2.3.3 Ease of Use 25
2.3.4 Ease of Use and Word Retention 25
2.3.5 Ease of Use—Type-in vs. Click-on/Pop-up 27
2.3.6 Ease of Use—Extraneous Cognitive Load 29
2.3.7 The Display of Electronic Dictionaries 32
2.4 Research Basis and Gaps that the Present Study Addresses 34
2.5 Research Questions 36

CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 37
3.1 Research Design 37
3.1.1 Research Site 38
3.1.2 Participants 40
3.1.3 Research Instruments 41
3.1.4 Experimental Procedures 53
3.2 Data Collection and Analysis Procedures 58

CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS 60
4.1 Overview 60
4.2 Results of Quantitative Data Analysis 61
4.2.1 Overall Effect of Time and Dictionary Type 61
4.2.2 Overall Effect of Time 62
4.2.3 Overall Effect of Dictionary Type 64
4.2.4 Effect of Dictionary Type for the Three Types of Vocabulary Tests—Follow-up Vocabulary Test 65
4.2.5 Effect of Dictionary Type for the Three Types of Vocabulary Tests—Delayed Vocabulary Test 1 65
4.2.6 Effect of Dictionary Type for the Three Types of Vocabulary Tests—Delayed Vocabulary Test 2 66
4.2.7 A Comparison of the Three Test Types—Recognition, Meaning, and Fill-in Tests 67
4.3 Results of Qualitative Data Analysis 70
4.3.1 Results of the Post-activity Questionnaire 70
4.3.1.1 Overall Experiences after Using the Three Types of Dictionaries 71
4.3.1.2 Questions about Dictionary Use with Regard to Comprehension and Word Retention 72
4.3.1.3 Questions about the Participants’ Look-up Behavior 75
4.3.1.4 Questions about the Participants’ Preferences after Using the Three Types of Dictionaries 76
4.3.2 Results of the Interviews 77
4.4 Summary 84

CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSIONS, LIMITATIONS, IMPLICATIONS, SUGGESTIONS, AND CONCLUSIONS 87

5.1 Discussions 87
5.1.1 Discussion of the First Research Question 87
5.1.2 Discussion of the Second Research Question 93
5.2 Limitations 95
5.3 Pedagogical Implications 97
5.4 Suggestions for Future Research 98
5.5 Conclusions 99

REFERENCES 101
APPENDICES 111
APPENDIX A: Article 1: Ching Jing Farm 111
APPENDIX B: Article 2: Ali Mountain 113
APPENDIX C: Article 3: Taroko National Park 115
APPENDIX D: Pre-intervention Vocabulary Test 117
APPENDIX E: Follow-up Vocabulary Test: Ching Jing Farm—Recognition Test 120
APPENDIX F: Follow-up Vocabulary Test: Ching Jing Farm—Meaning Test 121
APPENDIX G: Follow-up Vocabulary Test: Ching Jing Farm—Fill-in Test 122
APPENDIX H: Follow-up Vocabulary Test: Ali Mountain—Recognition Test 123
APPENDIX I: Follow-up Vocabulary Test: Ali Mountain—Meaning Test 124
APPENDIX J: Follow-up Vocabulary Test: Ali Mountain—Fill-in Test 125
APPENDIX K: Follow-up Vocabulary Test: Taroko National Park—Recognition Test 126
APPENDIX L: Follow-up Vocabulary Test: Taroko National Park—Meaning Test 127
APPENDIX M: Follow-up Vocabulary Test: Taroko National Park—Fill-in Test 128
APPENDIX N: Delayed Vocabulary Test 1 129
APPENDIX O: Delayed Vocabulary Test 2 135
APPENDIX P: Pre-activity Questionnaire 141
APPENDIX Q: Post-activity Questionnaire 144
APPENDIX R: Interview Questions 147
APPENDIX S: Chinese Consent Form 148
APPENDIX T: Descriptive Statistics: Recognition of Words (Follow-up Vocabulary Test) 149
APPENDIX U: Descriptive Statistics: Retention of Words (Delayed Vocabulary Test 1) 150
APPENDIX V: Descriptive Statistics: Retention of Words (Delayed Vocabulary Test 2) 151

LIST OF TABLES

Table Page
2.1 Comparison of the Features of Bilingual Printed Dictionaries (PD), Pocket Electronic Dictionaries (PED), and Online Type-in Dictionaries on Desktop Computers (OTID) 11
2.2 Famous Printed Dictionary Online Versions 15
2.3 Online Dictionaries Provided by the Two Main Portal Sites in Taiwan 15
2.4 Comparison of Three Online Dictionaries 17
2.5 The Intervals of Post-tests on Word Retention after the Tutorial/Instruction/Experiment 23
3.1 Experimental Design 37
3.2 Summary of the Participants’ Demographic Information 41
4.1 Overall Results (Means, Standard Deviations and Proportions of Accuracy) in the Follow-up, Delayed 1, and Delayed 2 Vocabulary Tests for the Three Types of Dictionaries 63
4.2 Means and Standard Deviations of the Follow-up Vocabulary Test by Dictionary Type 65
4.3 Means and Standard Deviations of the Delayed Vocabulary Test 1 by Dictionary Type 66
4.4 Means and Standard Deviations of the Delayed Vocabulary Test 2 by Dictionary Type 67
4.5 Means and Standard Deviations of the Effects of Applying the Three Dictionaries on the Three Post-tests (Follow-up, Delayed 1, and Delayed 2) by Test Type (Recognition, Meaning, and Fill-in) 68
4.6 Results of the Post-activity Questionnaire—Questions about the Participants’ Opinions after Using the Three Types of Dictionaries (Presented as Frequencies and Percentages) 72
4.7 Results of the Post-activity Questionnaire—Questions about the Participants’ Self-evaluation after Using the Three Types of Dictionaries (Presented as Frequencies and Percentages) 74
4.8 Results of Post-activity Questionnaire—Questions about the Participants’ Look-up Behavior (Presented as Frequencies and Percentages) 76
4.9 Results of Post-activity Questionnaire—Questions about the Participants’ Preferences (Presented as Frequencies and Percentages) 77

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure Page
2.1. The Milestone in Dictionary Development 9
2.2. Dictionaries Commonly Used in Vocabulary Acquisition by EFL Students 14
3.1. The Research Site—the Computer Lab 39
3.2. The Research Site—the Classroom 39
3.3. The Interface of Yahoo! Online Bilingual Dictionary 43
3.4. A Sample Entry of Yahoo! Online Bilingual Dictionary 44
3.5. The Pocket Electronic Dictionaries Used in This Study 45
3.6. A Sample Entry of the Pocket Electronic Dictionary, Model CD-859 46
3.7. The Oxford Advanced Learner's English-Chinese Dictionaries Used in This Study 47
3.8. A Sample Entry of the Oxford Advanced Learner's English-Chinese Dictionary 47
3.9. The Students were Reading an Article with the Aid of OTID 54
3.10. The Students were Reading an Article with the Aid of PED 54
3.11. The Students were Reading an Article with the Aid of PD 55
3.12. A Flow Chart of the Experimental Procedures 57
3.13. A Flow Chart of the Procedures Used in This Study 59
4.1. The Participants’ Overall Performances in the Follow-up, Delayed 1, and Delayed 2 Vocabulary Tests with the Aid of OTID, PED, and PD 62
4.2. Participants’ Performances in the Recognition Tests of the Three Post-tests with the Aid of OTID, PED, and PD 69
4.3. Participants’ Performances in the Meaning Tests of the Three Post-tests with the Aid of OTID, PED, and PD 69
4.4. Participants’ Performances in the Fill-in Tests of the Three Post-tests with the Aid of OTID, PED, and PD 70

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Online sources used in this study

Alexa Traffic Rank
http://www.alexa.com/

Dictionary.com
http://dictionary.reference.com/

Dr. Eye
http://www.dreye.com/en/about/about.php

Google dictionary
http://www.google.com.tw/dictionary?hl=zh-TW

Merriam-Webster
http://www.merriam-webster.com/

Yahoo! Online bilingual dictionary
http://tw.dictionary.yahoo.com/

Wikipedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dictionary
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electronic_dictionary
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inventec#Inventec_BESTA

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