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研究生:許敏虹
研究生(外文):Ming-HungHsu
論文名稱:與魔鬼交易:為反抗印度文化的性別歧視主義而妥協於美國東方主義在巴哈若蒂‧穆可姬的《茉莉》
論文名稱(外文):Trading with the Devil: Resisting Sexism in Indian Culture and Compromising with American Orientalism in Bharati Mukherjee’s Jasmine
指導教授:楊哲銘楊哲銘引用關係
指導教授(外文):Che-Ming Yang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系碩博士班
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:英文
論文頁數:73
中文關鍵詞:茉莉穆可姬性別歧視主義美國東方主義第三波女性主義後殖民主義反抗妥協
外文關鍵詞:JasmineMukherjeesexismAmerican Orientalismpostcolonialismresistancecompromise
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儘管女性主義、解殖主義與其他反抗既得利益者的各式主義已興起,仍有許多學者堅稱弱勢者無法為自己說話,而其他非弱勢者也無法使用以上這些理論來為弱勢者說話。《茉莉》即被寫於此脈絡下,來證明即使身為非弱勢者仍可嘗試為弱勢者發聲。在第一章,針對「為他人說話」這個議題,我對照了史碧娃克的質疑與艾維卡芙的贊同意見,並解釋對於作者巴哈若蒂‧穆可姬而言,女主角茉莉的存在成為了一種「為他人說話」的方式。即使《茉莉》是本為弱者出聲、為他人說話的小說,仍無損本書作者幫助弱勢者的貢獻,亦無表現出刻意毀謗印度或美國的意圖。除了這個議題,我也嘗試在第一章根據恩蓋與杜許這兩位學者的研究來對「美國東方主義」作適當的定義。第二章主要探討茉莉為了逃離印度文化的性別歧視主義而決定移民美國以及她藉由顛覆主體與他者之間的地位來對抗美國東方主義。茉莉為了得到成為一名好女人的資格,決定捨去從未對她認證且她亦已然不在乎的印度,轉而成為一名美國人;相較於印度對女人的要求,美國人的身分可為她帶來更多自由。然而在美國,身為一名由第三世界移民而來的女子,茉莉終須面對美國東方主義。最後,她選擇去對抗並妥協於它,而非逃回印度。在第二章,愛德華‧薩伊德的東方主義與荷米‧巴巴的雜揉概念成為了我分析茉莉抵抗與妥協於美國主義的研究方法。最後在第三章,我盡力證明茉莉的最終選擇暗示著她始終人人平等的希望,同時也闡明穆可吉為弱勢者創造了一個世界大同的可能性。儘管茉莉在故事結尾並未真正實現這個平等的願望,但她最後與泰勒的擁抱則為這個願望注入一絲希望。
Notwithstanding the rise of feminism, de-colonialism, and other theoretical movements of rebelling against the superior, many scholars claim that the subalterns cannot speak for themselves and that other people cannot speak for them by appropriating those theories. Jasmine is written in such a context to prove that people who are not recognized as the subalterns can also try to speak for themselves. In Chapter One, I contrast Spivak’s query of speaking for others with Linda Martín Alcoff’s argument of advocating speaking for others to demonstrate that though Jasmine’s existence for Mukherjee is a way to speak for others, it should have its positive meanings for the subaltern. Even if Jasmine is written to speak for subalterns, it could be a valuable contribution on behalf of the oppressed, but not through misunderstanding them or stemming from an intention to discredit India or America. Aside from concerning about the issue of speaking for others, I also try to seek a proper definition of “American Orientalism” based on Mae M Ngai’s and Nathaniel Deutsch’s research. Chapter Two explores Jasmine’s intention to become an American just for escaping Sexism in Indian cultureand her resistance against American Orientalism by reversing the position between the Subject and the Other become essence. Having no concern for her original identity, Jasmine trades her Indian identity for the justification of being a good woman in America. However, being an immigrant woman from the Third World in America forces Jasmine to confront American Orientalism. Finally, she chooses to resist and meanwhile compromise it instead of going back to India. In Chapter Two, Edward Said’s Orientalism and Homi Bhabha’s concept of hybridity are used to be my approach to analyze Jasmine’s resistance and compromise. Finally, in Chapter Three, I strive to prove that Jasmine’s choice suggests her hope of equality for everyone, and illustrates Mukherjee’s hope of creating a possibility of equality for the subalterns too. Although Jasmine does not realize her dream of equality at the end of the story, her choice of hugging with Taylor still suggests a ray of hope for everyone to get the possibility of equality.
Introduction…………………………………………………………………………1
Chapter One……………………………………………………………………………12
Jasmine’s Awareness of Sexism in Indian Culture and American Orientalism
Chapter Two……………………………………………………………………………33
Jasmine’s resistance to Sexism in Indian Culture and American Orientalism
Chapter Three………………………………………………………………………56
The Meaning in the End of Jasmine
Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………68
Works Cited……………………………………………………………………………72

Alcoff, Linda Martín. “The Problem of Speaking for Others. Overcoming Racisim and Sexism. Ed. Linda A. Bell and David Blumenfeld. New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc, 1995. 229-253.
Alfonso, Rita, and Jo Trigilio. “Surfing the Third Wave: A Dialogue between Two Third Wave Feminists. Hypatia. 12.3 (1997): 7-16.
Bhabha, Homi K. “The Commitment to Theory. The Location of Culture. London: Routledge, 1994. 19-39.
Bhabha, H.K., & Rutherford, J. “The third space: Interview with Homi Bhabha. In J. Rutherford (Ed.), Identity: Community, culture, difference (pp. 207-221). London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1990.
Deutsch, Nathaniel. “ ‘The Asiatic Black Man’: An African American Orientalism?
Journal of Asian American Studies. 4.3 (2001): 193-208.
Flank, Lenny. “Feminism. Hegemony and Counter-Hegemony. Florida: Red and Black, 2007.
Golumbia, David. “Rethinging Philosophy in the Third Wave of Feminism. Hypatia. 12.3 (1997): 100-115.
Goss, Jasper. “Postcolonialism: subverting whose empire? Third World Quarterly. 17.2 (1996): 239-250.
Hondagneu-Sotelo, Pierrette. “Feminism and Migration. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 571 (2000): 107-120.
Kristin, Carter-Sanborn. “‘We Murdered Who We Were’: Jasmine and the Voice of
Identity. American Literature. 66.3 (1994): 573-593.
Mohanty, Chandra Talpade. “Under Western Eyes: Feminist Scholarship and Colonial
Discourses. Feminist Review. 30 (1988): 61-88.
Mukherjee, Bharati. Jasmine. New York: Virago Press, 1991. Print.
Ngai, Mae M. “American Orientalism. Reviews in American History. 28.3 (2000):
408-415.
Ning, Wang. “Orientalism versus Occidentalism? New Literary History. 28.1. (1997): 57-67.
Petersen, Thomas Søbirk. “A woman’s Choice? On women, Assisted Reproduction and Social coercion Ethical Theory and Moral Practice. 7.1 (2004): 81-90.
Prakash, Gyan. “Orientalism Now History and Theory. 34.3 (1995): 199-212.
Ruppel, F. Timothy. “Re-Inventing Ourselves a Million Times: Narrative,Desire,
Identity, and Bharati Mukerjee’s Jasmine College Literature. 22.1 (1995):
181-191.
Snyder, R. Claire. “What Is Third-Wave Feminism? A New Direction’s Essay. Signs. 34.1 (2008): 175-196.
Spivak, Gayatri C. “Can the Subaltern Speak? Clonial Discourse and Post-colonial Theory: A Reader. New York: Columbia University Press. 1994.

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