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研究生:蔡茜伃
研究生(外文):Chien-YuTsai
論文名稱:以中文為外語學習者之聲調表現研究
論文名稱(外文):ON TONAL BEHAVIOR OF CFL LEARNERS
指導教授:鍾榮富鍾榮富引用關係
指導教授(外文):Raung-Fu Chung
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系碩博士班
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:英文
論文頁數:172
中文關鍵詞:以中文為第二外語學習中文聲調對比分析學標記差異假設語音學習模型
外文關鍵詞:CFL learningChinese toneContrastive AnalysisMarked Differential Hypothesisspeech learning model
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本文要旨從聲學語音學的角度去檢視以中文為外語學習者的聲調表現。英文的音調不對語意造成影響,而中文的聲調從音節的層面便能影響語意。因此,對於非聲調語言母語者如英語母語者而言,中文和英文音韻類型對比將造成中文音調學習上的困難 (Shen, 1989; Ross, 2001; Wang, Jongman, & Sereno, 2006)。 從經典的「對比分析學」(Contrastive Analysis) (Lado 1957)中所提出,第二語若存在母語所沒有的語言單位時,將會造成學習者的學習困難。然而,Eckman (1977) 所提出的 「標記差異假設」(Marked Differential Hypothesis)認為,學習的困難源自於語言本身及語言間的標記性。抑或從「語音學習模型」(speech learning model) (Fledge 1987, 1995)的觀點來看,相似的音才是外語學習者習得第二語最無法習得的地方。
本文將透過發音與感知的測試進一步了解以中文為外語的學習者學習的困難,並進一步從超音段的角度實證上列理論與假說。在發音測驗中,共有十三位中文為外語學習者的有效樣本,受試者需學中文超過一年的時間並且為英語母語者。另外以兩位台灣的中文母語者的發音表現作為基準來比對。語料樣本包含四個聲調的單音節字及所有可能聲調結合的雙音節字。同時對比透過PRRAT軟體分析受試者的語音表現以及四位高中國文老師對母語學習者的感知測驗。
本研究的發現如下: (1) 對以中文為外語的學習者而言,一聲是最簡單不受標記的,其次是二聲。這兩者聲調表現的正確率也都較高。(2) 三聲在發音變調中,可能變成二聲或四聲,因此增加三聲的難度,受試者大多將三聲表現成二聲。(3) 四聲之所以會比二聲困難是因為非聲調語言母語者沒有調域的概念,除此之外,高聲平調在英文裡常被當成重音,因此混淆了四聲的學習。(4) 因此,標記差異假設可解釋以中文為外語學習者的學習困難。另外,母語重音習慣的干擾以及無調域概念的學習經驗,也是造成中文學習障礙的主因。

The essential goal of this article is to examine, from the perspective of acoustic phonetics, the tonal behaviors of CFL (Chinese as a foreign language) learners. Unlike English in which pitch doesn’t contrast meaning syllabically, Chinese tone distinguishes meaning in syllable level (Ambercrombie 1967, Liu 2010). The phonological typology contrast between Chinese and English lays difficulties on tonal acquisition for non-tone native learners like Americans when learning Chinese as foreign language (Shen, 1989; Ross, 2001; Wang, Jongman, & Sereno, 2006). As proposed in the classic Contrastive Analysis (Lado 1957), those L2 linguistic units which are absent from L1 would be the potential difficulty for the learners. However, in MDH (Marked Differential Hypothesis, Eckman 1977, 2004), the learning difficulty is subject to different levels of markedness. The third popular view is the theory of SLM [speech learning model] (Fledge 1987, 1995), which proposed that the old sounds are even more difficult to acquire in L2.
We’d like to know the tonal behaviors of CFL learners with the analysis combining production and perception test and to further examine the hypothesis in the perspective of supra segmental phonetics. In the production test, 13 CFL subjects recruited in this study include 10 male subjects and 3 female subjects, who have learned Chinese at least and are all English natives. All the sounds collected were analyzed with the help of the Praat program. We sorted out the patterns of 4 distinctive tones in Mandarin produced by CFL learners, which were taken to compare with two Taiwanese students. Then different order of these four tones, for instance, 1+1, 1+2, 1+3, 1+4, 2+1, etc.(1= the first tone, or yinping, whose tonal value is 55, and 2= the second tone, or yangping, whose tonal value is 35 (Chao 1937). The reading list is designed on the basis of Chao (1968), which claims that each phonemic tone would be perceived differently in phonetics. In the perception study, four high school teachers take part in to judge the production of 2 CFL learners and 2 Taiwanese. Four tones of monosyllabic word pin and each set of tonal combination are chosen as materials to be contrasted.
The basic finding are: (1) in the production of CFL learners, level tone is unmarked and easiest to substitute the other tones, followed by rising tone, which has higher correctness rate. (2) Dipping tone can be rising, dipping, or falling and are all perceived as 3rd tone. This leads 3rd tone to be the most difficult tone for CFL learners, usually realized as rising. (3) Falling tone is harder than rising because of two reasons. First, CFL learners have little concept about tonal range and tonal category. The initiation of falling would cause problems. Besides, high level tone like falling tone is more or less treated as a stress. English prefer antepenultimate stress; therefore, when falling tone is in word final position, the combination would lead to lower correctness rate of falling tone. (4) In conclusion, following MDH, markedness plays an essential part in language acquisition and L1 interference from stress to tone has an effect on suprasegmental phonetics. However, in SLM, the theory that new segments are easier to be acquired can’t be applied to new suprasegments. The lack of the ability to specifically define tonal category for Chinese tones leads to CFL learners’ learning difficulties and foreign accent.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chinese Abstract ......................................... I
English Abstract ........................................ II
Acknowledgements ........................................ IV
Table of Contents ........................................ V
List of Tables and Figures ............................ VIII

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
1.0 Introduction ................... 1
1.1 Chinese as a tone language ................... 2
1.2 Fundamental frequency in tone and non-tone language ................... 4
1.3 Previous studies of CFL learning ................... 5
1.4 Motivation and Purpose of present study ................... 10
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Introduction ................... 11
2.1 Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis and Marked Differential Hypothesis ................... 12
2.2 Speech Learning Modal ................... 16
2.3 More about SLA: critical period hypothesis and age of arrival hypothesis ................... 20
2.4 Theories and research question ...................22

CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY
3.0 Introduction ................... 23
3.1 Participants ................... 23
3.2 Material and test stimuli................... 24
3.3 Instruments ................... 26
3.3.1 PRAAT& PRAAT Script Programs ................... 26
3.3.2 The Data Processing Kit (DPK) and Microsoft ACCESS ................... 27
3.4 Procedures of data analysis ................... 29

CHAPTER FOUR ACOUSTIC ANALYSIS OF CITATION TONES AND TONES IN DISYLLABIC WORDS
4.0 Introduction ................... 31
4.1 Acoustic properties of four tones in citation forms in monosyllabic word ................... 32
4.1.1 Fundamental frequency analysis of four tones in citation form produced by Taiwanese Mandarin speakers compared with Tseng's (1990) study ................... 32
4.1.2 Fundamental frequency contour analysis of four tones in citation form produced by CFL learners................... 51
4.2 Tonal combination and Tone variation in disyllabic words ................... 70
4.2.1 Chinese tone sandhi and coarticulation ................... 71
4.2.2 Tonal behaviors of Mandarin native speakers in Taiwan ................... 72
4.2.3 Assumption of tonal behaviors of CFL learners ................... 86
4.2.4 Tonal behaviors and correctness rate of each tonal combination of CFL
learners in present study ................... 87
CHAPTER FIVE PERCEPTION TASK OF TONAL BEHAVIORS OF TAIWANESE AND CFL LEARNERS
5.0 Introduction ................... 98
5.1 Design of perception task ................... 98
5.1.1 Subjects ................... 98
5.1.2 Items and task design ................... 99
5.2 Results of monosyllabic word ...................101
5.3 Results of disyllabic words ................... 105
5.4 Conclusion ................... 120
CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSION
6.0 Introduction ................... 122
6.1 Markedness of Chinese tone on the basis of MDH ................... 122
6.2 Language interference & revision of SLM ................... 124
6.3 difficulty hierarchy of tonal combination ................... 127
6.4 Main problems of CFL learners ................... 129
6.5 Theoretical Contributions ...................130
6.6 Pedagogical Implications ................... 131
6.7 Limitations and Suggestions for Further Research ................... 131

REFERENCES ................... 133
Appendix 3.1: Questionnaire ................... 138
Appendix 4.1: Production of CFL learners ................... 139-151
Appendix 4.2 : 5-points tone letter with 10 time division along contour ................... 152-160
Appendix 5.1.1: perception test by Tseng ................... 161
Appendix 5.1.2 : perception test by Lee ................... 162
Appendix 5.1.3: perception test by Chou ................... 163
Appendix 5.1.4: perception test by Chen ................... 164
Appendix 5.2.1 Track items of monosyllabic words................... 166
Appendix 5.2.2 Track items of divided disyllabic words ................... 167
Appendix 5.2.3 Track items of disyllabic words ................... 168
Appendix 5.3.1 F0 of disyllabic words produced by Female Taiwanese ................... 169
Appendix 5.3.2 F0 of disyllabic words produced by Female CFL learner (subject 13) ................... 170
Appendix 5.3.3 F0 of disyllabic words produced by male Taiwanese ................... 171
Appendix 5.3.4 F0 of disyllabic words produced by Male CFL learner (subject4) ................... 172
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