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研究生:許義德
研究生(外文):Yi-DerHsu
論文名稱:桑蒂‧史密司《白牙》中多元文化與身份認同危機
論文名稱(外文):"Happy Multicultural Land" and Identity Crisis in Zadie Smith's White Teeth
指導教授:張淑麗張淑麗引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shu-Li Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系在職專班
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:英文
論文頁數:82
中文關鍵詞:多元文化混種文化身份認同危機種族主義殖民地論述刻板型塑國家主義
外文關鍵詞:multiculturalhybridizedidentity crisisracismcolonial discoursestereotypenationalism
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摘要
桑蒂‧史密斯(Zadie Smith)是一位具有英國及牙買加血统而孕育於多元文化家庭的作家。在她的名著《白牙》(White Teeth)中,她描述英國當代混種多元文化社群的複雜面向。小說以詼諧俏皮口吻來敍述眾聲喧嘩的多元社會,不但藉此披露多元文化之間矛盾與衝突,也同時戮破多元文化社會喜樂和諧的神話。然而,這混種現像也意指一個嶄新的英國文化本體的浮現。針對小說中諸多角色(不論是主流白人或少數離散族裔)在混種多元文化社會中所受衝擊而產生的身份認同危機,本論文特地引用(Homi Bhabha)、霍爾(Stuart Hall)、薩依德(Edward Said)等學者的理論來探討剝析此問題。
本論文共三章,分別論述小說中個別角色身份認同危機的因果。第一章特別强調昔日殖民論述餘緒仍深深影響大不列顛的居民。殖民論述仍以白人至上(White Supremacy)為本,並以種族的刻板型塑(stereotyping)為輔,進而遂行邊緣化、卑劣化他者之實。殖民論述挾其認知暴力(epistemic violence)有效取代實證存在,進而扭曲小說中某些角色對其主體性的認知。第二章探討國家主義如何以统一之名排擠外來族羣。國家主義本質上追求同質性(homogeneity),因此排斥多元社會的異質(heterogeneity)。國家主義透過政府機構或民間個體展現其摧枯拉朽力道。在《白牙》中,作者針對國家主義者(nationalist)對少數族裔所犯暴行及受害角色的報復行為有諸多著墨。而本章也就國家主義的暴力和角色們的主體認同問題作一番連結。第三章討論小說中要角擺盪於相剋的兩種文化的矛盾:一方面,抗拒主流西方文化而竭力回歸種族文化原本(ethnic authenticity),另一方面又潛意識渴求融入其所憎惡的西方文化。而此困境(dilemma)凸顯此要角對於主體認同的困惑。

Abstract
In her novel White Teeth, Zadie Smith famously writes not only about the everyday multicultural lives of the denizens in a hybridized community in Willesden, North London in 1975 but also forefronts their identity crisis in Multicultural England Drawing on the concept of hybridity in The Location of Culture by Homi K. Bhabha, the proposition of identity crisis in “The Question of Cultural Identity.” Modernity: an Introduction to Modern Societies by Stuart Hall, and the definition of Orientalism in Orientalism by Edward Said, this thesis aims to discuss the key issue, identity crisis found in White Teeth and argues that it is attributable to the racially charged colonial discourse, prevalent nationalism, the opposing strivings of the desires for ethnic authenticity and for cultural assimilation. Hence, each of the three main chapters is aimed at dealing with an individual root cause that gives rise to identity crisis.
Chapter One is dedicated to discussing how the unfading colonial discourse has contributed to antagonizing the inhabitants of Great Britain, including both the migrants and the dominant white natives as a whole. To bolster the argument, I maintain that it is racial stereotype that plays a starring role in empowering colonial discourse which, in turn, inferiorizes the non-white. Chapter Two deals with how the eclipsing nationalism in Great Britain functions to subjugate its ethnic groups and eventually alienate them from the world around them. This chapter argues that in the nationalist’s appeal to the homogeneity of the nation-state, the immigrants are ostracized as the threats to the security of the nation-state, Great Britain. Accordingly, the characters in this novel doomed to such adversities suffer from their identity crisis. Chapter Three is dedicated to discussing a paradoxical identification as the immigrants oscillate between an allegiance to ethnic authenticity and an irresistible desire for assimilation into the dominant culture. The paradox can never be solved because for a disaporic subject, the two disparate cultures are irreconcilable in nature. And it is hardly surprising that this has resulted in disorienting his or her cultural identification. Through the discussions in the three chapters, this thesis argues that some of the characters in the novel suffer from identity crisis due to their inabilities to cope with the challenges a hybridized multicultural England poses to them.
Keywords: identity, multicultural, hybridized, Englishness, racism, nationalism.


Table of Contents

Introduction…………………………………………………………………………1

Chapter One
The Inescapability of the Haunting Colonial Discourse…………………………….15

Chapter Two
The Eclipsing Nationalist Currency in Contemporary Great Britain………………...39

Chapter Three
The Allegiance to the Origin and the Desire for Assimilation……………………….58

Conclusion...................................................................................................................75


Works Cited…………………………………………………………………………79





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