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研究生:何姿頴
研究生(外文):Tzu-Ying ArielHo
論文名稱:台灣中部土壤線蟲豐度與多樣性的海拔分布
論文名稱(外文):Soil nematode abundance and diversity along an altitudinal gradient in Central Taiwan
指導教授:張松彬張松彬引用關係
指導教授(外文):Song-Bin Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:生命科學系碩博士班
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:英文
論文頁數:34
中文關鍵詞:土壤線蟲海拔森林生物多樣性
外文關鍵詞:soil nematodesaltitudeforestbiodiversity
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線蟲作為土壤中數量最豐富的後生動物之一,用其作為土壤生物多樣性的評估極具代表性。此外,由於土壤線蟲的生活史和取食類型的多樣化,使其對於環境干擾有不同程度的耐受度,可作為評估土壤的環境狀況與食物網結構的指標生物。由於氣候與林相會隨著海拔的攀升而改變,這些變化可透過土壤線蟲群落的組成來反映。本研究欲了解台灣土壤線蟲的豐度與多樣性沿海拔梯度的變化趨勢。於台灣中部的大湖(Dahu)、奮起湖(Fenchihu)、阿里山(Alishan)與塔塔加鞍部(Tataka)四個地區進行採樣,並對其土壤線蟲群落組成進行定性與定量分析。結果顯示,不同海拔森林的總線蟲豐度並無顯著差異,但在阿里山的食細菌性線蟲的豐度顯著高於大湖和塔塔加鞍部,而捕食與雜食性線蟲則在較高海拔的豐度較高。隨著海拔的上升,多樣性指數(Shannon index)、屬豐度(genus richness)、均勻度(evenness)呈現增加的趨勢;相反地,優勢度(dominance)則呈現減少的趨勢。在線蟲評估指數方面,富集指數(EI)及結構指數(SI)的結果顯示,環境受干擾的程度在塔塔加鞍部最高;基礎指數(BI)的結果亦顯示,塔塔加鞍部和奮起湖比阿里山承受了較多的環境壓力;此外,通道指數(CI)的結果顯示阿里山不同於其他海拔的森林,其土壤有機質的分解途徑是以細菌分解為主。多樣性指數、均勻度及結構指數與土壤濕度、總氮量及土壤有機碳有顯著正相關,表示植被與氣候因子是影響線蟲多樣性沿著海拔分布的主要因素。
For understanding the responses of soil nematodes to altitudinal gradient variation in Taiwan, the soil nematode abundance and diversity were investigated in four forests, including mixed evergreen broad-leaved India-charcoal trema forest (Dahu), dark coniferous Japanese cryptomeria forest (Fenchifu), dark coniferous Japanese cryptomeria forest (Alishan) and pure coniferous Taiwan spruce forest (Tataka), along an altitudinal gradient in central Taiwan. The qualitative and quantitative analyses of soil nematode communities were calculated, including Shannon index (H’), dominance (λ), evenness (J), genus richness (GR), structure index (SI), enrichment index (EI), basal index (BI) and channel index (CI). There was no significant pattern observed in the result of the abundance of total nematodes. Nevertheless, the abundance of bacterivores under Alishan was significant higher than Dahu and Tataka (p 〈 0.05). And the abundance of omnivores/predators under Dahu was significant lower than the others. As altitude increasing, the diversity, evenness, and genus richness of soil nematode community increased significantly. In contrast, the dominance of soil nematode community declined with altitude. Both EI and SI of Tataka were less than 50 indicated Tataka may be the most disturbed forest site. And the higher BI of Fenchihu and Tataka indicated there may be more environmental stresses under Fenchihu and Tataka than Alishan. Besides, the lowest CI of Alishan suggested the bacterial decomposition pathway may be more important under Alishan than the other forest sites. The H’, J and SI were significantly correlated with soil moisture, soil organic carbon and total nitrogen. The data of this study suggested that the vegetation and climate may be mainly influential factors of the soil nematode diversity patterns along altitude.
CHINESE ABSTRACT..........................................................................I
ENGLISH ABSTRACT.........................................................................II
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS....................................................................III
CONTENT.........................................................................................IV
LIST OF TABLES...............................................................................V
LIST OF FIGURES...........................................................................VI
Introduction.........................................................................................1
Materials and methods.......................................................................4
Study sites..........................................................................................4
Soil sampling......................................................................................4
Soil chemical and physical analyses..................................................5
Soil free living nematodes fauna extraction and identification...........6
Nematodes ecological indices............................................................6
Statistical analysis..............................................................................8
Results...............................................................................................9
Soil chemical properties.....................................................................9
Abundance of soil nematodes............................................................9
The proportion of soil nematode taxa...............................................10
Nematodes ecological indices..........................................................11
Discussions......................................................................................13
Conclusions......................................................................................19
References..................................................................................... 20
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