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研究生:洪詩涵
研究生(外文):Shih-HuanHung
論文名稱:時間基礎的租賃契約應用於供應鏈之效益
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Time-based Leasing Contract in a Supply Chain
指導教授:林正章林正章引用關係
指導教授(外文):Cheng-Chang Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:交通管理學系碩博士班
學門:運輸服務學門
學類:運輸管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:77
中文關鍵詞:供應鏈管理租賃契約預購訂購折扣
外文關鍵詞:Supply Chain ManagementLeasing ContractAdvanced Booking Discount
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本研究零售商所提供之租賃契約係以時間為基礎,並將租賃契約分為兩時節,顧客可於期間一租約到期時,選擇租賃產品升級與否,零售商可藉此機制提前確定多產品之需求。在面對不同顧客群體之需求曲線時,藉由確定之需求,零售商可與製造商提前簽訂契約以有效降低成本,並進行各時點之採購、販售、租賃、經營二手市場、成本控管及定價策略等營運規劃,以達到零售商利潤極大之目標。本研究藉由推演各顧客群體之消費者剩餘函數,以及各消費群體之最適定價,可得其需求曲線,並透過分群之概念求得各顧客群體之消費人數,以確定其需求量。便藉此與製造商預先簽訂數量折扣契約,使得其訂購及庫存成本下降,根據模式特性建構數學模式,進行各需求量及最適定價與利潤之推演與求解。
在數值分析中,本研究採用三種情境進行比較,分別為無租賃契約、單一租賃契約以及時間基礎的租賃契約,進行相關定價及利潤之比較分析。再進行時間基礎的租賃契約有無提前與製造商簽訂數量折扣契約,對於其利潤及成本以及相關定價之評估,最後進行產品折舊率之敏感度分析,以分析各情境下對於利潤之影響。研究結果指出,零售商提供時間基礎的租賃契約,較僅提供單一租賃契約抑或是無租賃契約之利潤,皆擁有較好之績效表現。原因為提供時間基礎的租賃契約,使得顧客可選擇之顧客群體增加,零售商也因可同時經營租賃、販售及二手商品市場,增其收入來源,並吸引更多顧客參與市場,增其品牌忠誠度。在零售商因確定需求可提前與製造商簽訂數量折扣契約時,也因可大幅降低其購買成本,使得成本降低並提升其利潤。是故零售商藉由此雙契約之供應鏈整合,可有效提升其利潤。

In this research, the leasing contract that offered by retailer is Time-based, and we divided the time-based leasing contract into two periods. Customer can exercise the option of the upgrade of the leasing product in the end of the first period, and retailer could use this mechanism to make sure about the multi products’ demand. Facing to different demand functions of customers’ bundles, according to the certain demand that retailer can make a quantity discount contract with manufacturer in advance. Our objective value is to maximize retailer’s profit and to decide the optimal pricing strategy.
We make a comparison by three scenarios, no leasing contract, single leasing contract, time-based leasing contract respectively. And then we will compare whether retailer make a quantity discount contract in time-based leasing contract in advance to analyze the effects of the profit and the pricing strategy. From the numerical results, we observe that the profit that retailer offered time-based leasing contact to customer is better than no leasing contract or single leasing contract . Because retailer offered the time-based leasing contract could increase the numbers of customer bundles, the choices of customer bundles increased. The time-based leasing contact could increase the brand loyalty of customer. With the certain demand that retailer can make an quantity discount contract in advance to lower the purchasing and inventory cost. By combing these contracts in a supply chain, that could raise the retailer’s profit.

第一章、緒論 1
1.1研究背景與動機 1
1.2研究目的 4
1.3研究範圍 5
1.4研究方法與流程 5
第二章、文獻回顧 9
2.1供應鏈 9
2.1.1供應鏈與供應鏈管理之定義 9
2.1.2供應鏈管理之應用與策略 10
2.2租賃契約 12
2.2.1租賃契約之定義 12
2.2.2租賃契約之相關研究與文獻 13
2.3預購訂購折扣 18
2.3.1預購訂購折扣之定義 18
2.3.2預購訂購折扣之相關研究 18
2.4租賃概述 22
2.4.1租賃之運作模式 22
2.4.2企業之租賃經營現況 23
2.5小結 25
第三章、模式建構 27
3.1研究範圍與限制 27
3.2建立供應鏈契約架構 28
3.2.1現貨市場之顧客群體 28
3.2.2時間基礎的租賃契約之顧客群體 30
3.2.3時間基礎的租賃契約架構 31
3.3小結 33
第四章、數學模式 34
4.1模式說明 34
4.2參數與變數之符號 34
4.3顧客群體關係 35
4.4市場需求情境 39
4.4.1消費者選擇行為 39
4.4.2消費者價值函數 40
4.4.3推導需求曲線 42
4.5時間基礎的租賃契約之成本收益模式 47
4.6訂購折扣之時間基礎的租賃契約成本收益模式 49
4.7小結 51
第五章、數值分析 52
5.1 租賃公司價格訂定 52
5.2 問題規模與供應鏈結構 54
5.3 數值設定 55
5.4三種情境之分析與比較 57
5.5 數值分析與結果 58
5.5.1情境一:無租賃市場 58
5.5.2情境二:單一租賃契約 59
5.5.3情境三: 時間基礎的租賃契約 60
5.5.4數量折扣之時間基礎的租賃契約模式 62
5.5.5數值分析與結果統整 64
5.6 敏感度分析 65
5.7製造商實施數量折扣後之影響 68
5.8小結 68
第六章、結論與後續研究 70
6.1 結論 70
6.2 後續研究 72
參考文獻 73

一、中文部分
林我聰、羅國正、郭建良 (2002), 「推行供應鏈管理之不確定性因素及其因應策略之探討 -以台灣資訊電子業為例」, 工業工程學刊, 第十九卷第六期 , 頁 60-78。

二、英文部分
1.Bhaskaran, S. R., Gilbert, S. (2005), “Selling and leasing strategies for durable goods with complementary products, Management Science, 51 (8), pp. 1278-1290
2.Blanchard,D. (2010), Supply Chain Management Best Practices (1st ed.),
New York: Wiley Books Company, Inc.
3.Coase, R. H. (1972), “Durability and Monopoly, Journal of Law and Economics ,15 (1), pp. 143-149
4.Desai, P., Purohit, D. (1998), “Leasing and selling: Optimal marketing strategies for a durable goods firm, Management Science, 44 (11), pp. 19-34
5.Desai, P. , Purohit, D. (1999), “Competition in Durable Goods Markets: The Strategic Consequences of Leasing and Selling, Marketing Science, 18 (1), pp. 42-58
6.Desai, P. S., Koenigsberg O., Purohit, D. (2007), “The Role of Production Lead Time and Demand Uncertainty in Marketing Durable Goods, Management Science, 53 (1), pp. 150-158
7.Gritta, R. D., Lippman, E, Chow, G (1994) , “The impact of the capitalization of leases on airline financial analysis: An issue revisited, Logistics and Transportation Review , 30 (2), pp. 189-202
8.Hendel, I., Lizzeri, A. (2002), “The role of leasing under adverse selection, Journal of Political Economy, 110 (1), pp. 113-143
9.Hoque, Z. (2004), “A contingency model of the association between strategy, environmental uncertainty and performance measurement: impact on organizational performance, International Business Review, 13 (4), pp. 485-502
10.Huang, S. , Yang, Y. , Anderson K. (2001), “A Theory of Finitely Durable Goods Monopoly with Used-Goods Market and Transaction Costs, Management Science, 47 (11), pp. 1515-1532
11.Intlekofer, K., Bras, B. (2010), Ferguson, M, “Energy Implications of Product Leasing, Environmental Science & Technology ,44 (12), pp. 4409-4415
12.Dana , James D., Jr. (1998) , “Advance- Purchase Discounts and Price Discrimination in Competitive Markets. Journal of Political Economy, 106 (2), pp. 395-422
13.Jurmu, M., Perttunen, M., Riekki, J. (2007), “Lease-based Resource Management in Smart Spaces , Proceeding of Workshops of the 5th Annual IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications, White Plains, NY, USA, pp. 622-625.
14.McCardle, K., Rajaram, K., Tang, C. S. (2004), “Advance Booking Discount Programs Under Retail Competition. Management Science, 50 (5), pp. 701-708
15.Mentzer, J. T., Dewitt, W., Keebler, J. S., Min, S., Nix, N. W., Smith, C. D., Zacharia, Z. G. (2001), “Defining supply chain management, Journal of Business Logistics, 22 (2), pp. 1-25
16.Mont, O., Dalhammar, C., Jacobsson, N. (2006), “A new business model for baby prams based on leasing and product remanufacturing, Journal of Cleaner Production, 14 (17) , pp. 1509-1518
17.Nisbet ,Ward (2001), “Radiotherapy equipment–purchase or lease?, The British Journal of Radiology, 74 (884) , pp. 735–744
18.Pongpech, J. , Murthy, D.N.P (2006), “Optimal periodic preventive maintenance policy for leased equipment, Reliability Engineering and System Safety, 91 (7) , pp. 772–777
19.Schneider, H. S. (2009), “Moral Hazard in Leasing Contracts: Evidence from the New York City Taxi Industry, Johnson School Research Paper Series, 3-9
20.Smichi-Levi , D., Kaminsky, P., Simchi-Levi, E. (2008), Designing and managing the supply chain ( ed.) , New York: The McGraw Companies, Inc.
21.Stadtler, H., Kilger, C. (2008), Supply chain management and advanced planning: concepts, models, software, and case studies, New York: Springer Publishing Company.
22.Tilson, V., Wang, Y.Z., Yang, W. (2009), “Channel strategies for durable goods: Coexistence of selling and leasing to individual and corporate consumers, Production and Operations Management Society, 18 (4), pp. 402-410,
23.Wang, C. X. (2002), “A general framework of supply chain contract models, Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 7 (5), pp. 302-310
24.Yin, S., Ray, S., Gurnani, H, Animesh, A. (2010), “Durable products with multiple used goods markets: Product upgrades and retail pricing implications, Marketing Science, 29 (3), pp. 540-560
25.You, P. S., Chen, T. C. (2007), “Dynamic pricing of seasonal goods with spot and forward purchase demands, Computers and Mathematics with Application, 54 (4), pp. 490-498.
三、網站資料
1.台北市租賃商業同業公會: http://www.tpeleasing.com/forum.htm
2.行政院經濟部: http://www.moea.gov.tw/Mns/populace/home/Home.aspx
3.Awad, H. A., Nassar, M. O. (2010a). “Supply Chain Integration: Definition and Challenges, International Association of Engineers http://www.iaeng.org/publication/IMECS2010/IMECS2010_pp405-409.pdf
4.Hardsoft Computers: http://www.hardsoftcomputers.co.uk/
5.Computer leasing: http://www.computerleasing.co.nz/
6.HP: http://www.hp.com/sbso/buspurchase/leasing-intro.html

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