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研究生:林洋光
研究生(外文):Yang-GuangLin
論文名稱:電腦程式保護之比較──以專利法和著作權法為中心
論文名稱(外文):A Comparative Study of Computer Program Protection under Patent and Copyright Laws
指導教授:許忠信許忠信引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chung-Hsin Hsu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:法律學系
學門:法律學門
學類:一般法律學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:201
中文關鍵詞:電腦程式程式著作權軟體專利
外文關鍵詞:computer programprogram copyrightsoftware patent
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  電腦程式的保護方式一直是個爭議的熱門話題,其通常被認為具二元性,能夠同時受到著作權法與專利權法保護。這些爭議除了早期電腦程式是否受到著作權法保護外,著作權法保護範圍是否應及於程式之動作?程式之何元素或其介面是否應受到保護?對非文字侵權應使用何分析方法?什麼樣的重製行為是為合理使用?軟體專利的重要議題包括可專利與不可專利標的間的界線為何?其所必要的揭露程度為何?是否應採取與其他技術領域相同的非顯而易見性?以及先進國家對於對於這些問題處理的差異?
  本文研究上述議題在美國、歐盟、德國和英國等之案例發展,且對我國對電腦程式保護現狀做出介紹,比較目前著作權法與專利法所提供之保護範圍,最後對我國兩大法制下電腦程式保護做出建議與展望。

The protection of computer program is always a hot debat topic. Computer program is commonly known for its dual nature, which is that it could be protected by both copyright and patent laws. Except for whether computer program is a copyrightable subject matter, the dabates also include questions about should copyright protect program’s behavior, which elements of a program or its interface is protected, what analytical test should be applied to examine alleged non-literal copyright infringement, and what type of copying should be permitted as a fair use. The issues in patent area are where the boundary between patentable and non-patentable subject matter should lie, what kind of and how much patent disclosure is necessary, whether the non-obviousness should follow the same principles as in all other technical area, or different ones, and what major differences to these issues between the advanced countries are?
This thesis reviewed case law development related above issues in United States of America, the European Union, Germany, and the United Kingdom. The current status about the protection of computer program under copyright and patent laws in Taiwan was also comparatively examined. At end of this thesis, the prospect and suggestion will be provided for computer program protection under patent and copyright laws.

第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機 1
第二節 研究方法與範圍 1
第三節 論文架構 2
第二章 電腦程式的概念與其保護概況 4
第一節 電腦程式之概念 4
一、 電腦程式的定義與其相關觀念澄清 4
二、 電腦程式的種類 5
三、 電腦程式的演化過程 6
四、 電腦程式的構成單元 6
五、 電腦程式與硬體間的關係 7
第二節 電腦程式的特點 8
第三節 各國主要以著作權法保護 9
第四節 不排除另以專利權保護 12
第五節 歐洲聯盟內的區域統整 14
第六節 國際條約的相關規定 18
一、 巴黎公約 19
二、 伯恩公約 20
三、 TRIPS協定 22
四、 WIPO著作權條約 27
五、 小結 29
第三章 以著作權保護之探討 31
第一節 德國與美國電腦程式保護要件與其保護範圍之判斷 31
一、 德國 31
(一) 保護歷程 31
(二) 著作要件 34
1. 屬文學、科學、美術 34
2. 人類的創作 35
3. 精神內容 35
4. 個性(Individualität) 36
(三) 內容與形式理論 37
(四) 不保護標的 38
(五) 實務案例 39
二、 美國 42
(一) 立法沿革 42
(二) 保護要件 45
(三) 保護範圍之限制 48
1. 思想表達區分原則 48
2. 合併原則和必要場景原則 50
3. 合理使用 50
(四) 不保護標的 51
(五) 實務案例 51
1. 電腦程式的純文字保護 51
2. 電腦程式的非文字保護 55
三、 分析與比較 62
(一) 對素材收集、選擇、和編排的保護方式 62
(二) 低的原創性標準 65
(三) 以德國的「個性」分析美國的「抽象─濾除─比較法」 66
第二節 介面的保護 69
一、 介面規格與反向工程 69
(一) 美國 71
1. 介面的保護 71
2. 反向工程 78
(二) 歐盟 80
二、 使用者介面的保護 82
(一) 使用者介面整體的保護 83
1. 過濾或剖切法 84
2. 屬於操作方法 85
(二) 使用者介面的安排和順序 85
(三) 使用者介面的特定圖像或畫面 86
第四章 以專利制度保護之探討 88
第一節 專利申請與揭露義務 88
第二節 電腦程式相關發明之保護要件 90
一、 美國 90
(一) 專利申請範圍的可專利要件 90
(二) 程式相關發明的專利保護的歷史演進 94
1. 心智步驟原則 95
2. 數學演算法:新穎點和先占測試法 96
3. 物理轉換測試法 98
4. 印刷品原則 98
5. 實用、具體和有形的結果 100
6. 必須屬於技術工藝 103
7. 其他 105
(三) 「機器或轉換測試法」是專利適格的重要線索 105
(四) 程式相關發明的非顯而易見性 108
二、 歐洲 113
(一) 歐洲專利公約 113
(二) 發明要件 114
1. 技術貢獻法 117
2. 技術效果法/技術問題方案法 119
3. 任何硬體法 123
(三) 發明進步性要件 126
(四) 實務現況與分析 130
(五) 擴大上訴委員會見解(G 3/08) 132
三、 德國 135
(一) 技術要件與其定性 135
(二) 「電腦程式本身」的意義 137
(三) 過去實務案例 138
(四) 可專利條件的放寬 141
(五) 目前實務發展 145
四、 英國 149
五、 小結 155
第五章 我國現行的保護狀況與建議 157
第一節 我國以著作權法與專利法分別保護之區別 157
一、 保護標的 157
(一) 著作權法的保護標的 157
(二) 專利權的保護標的 160
1. 方法和裝置 162
2. 電腦可讀媒體、電腦程式產品、和資料結構產品 164
3. 傳播信號 166
4. 應用程式介面或協定 169
5. 使用者介面 170
二、 權利的限制與例外 171
(一) 著作的合理使用 171
1. 為備份之目的而重製 171
2. 配合使用之必要修改與重製 171
3. 必要的除錯行為 172
4. 機器維護或修理 172
5. 耗盡理論/第一次銷售理論 173
(二) 專利權的限制與例外 174
三、 侵權判定方法 175
(一) 著作權侵害鑑定 175
(二) 專利權侵害鑑定 177
(三) 比較 179
四、 侵權損害賠償之規定 180
第二節 以著作權法與專利法保護之問題分析 182
第三節 對於我國的建議 184
一、 維持各智慧財產權間的界線 184
二、 建立適合我國的專利產業政策 186
三、 於著作權法訂立反向工程例外條款 188
第六章 結論 189
參考文獻 191

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