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研究生:張滋芳
研究生(外文):Tzu-FangChang
論文名稱:副磁暴的初始過程在電離層與近地電漿片中的觀測研究
論文名稱(外文):Observational Studies of Substorm Initiation Processes in Ionosphere and Near-Earh Plasma Sheet
指導教授:陳秋榮陳秋榮引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chio-Zong Cheng
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:物理學系碩博士班
學門:自然科學學門
學類:物理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:英文
論文頁數:111
中文關鍵詞:副磁暴啟動副磁暴極光弧動力膨脹不穩定性
外文關鍵詞:substorm onsetsubstorm auroral arckinetic ballooning instability
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這篇論文的目的在於了解副磁暴啟動 (substorm onset) 的現象,以及探索在副磁暴啟動發生期間位於近地電漿片 (near-Earth plasma sheet) 中與地球電離層中所觀測到的現象。在這篇論文裏,我們闡述了兩個觀測性的研究,這兩個觀測性的研究成果可以使我們對副磁暴啟動發生過程有嶄新的理解。在第一個研究中,我們分析了許多的觀測結果,包含了西蜜斯任務的全天象照相機 (THEMIS ASIs)、福衛二號 (FORMOSAT-2) 上所搭配的科學酬載儀器 (ISUAL) CCD影像儀、 地面觀測站的磁場計、地球同步衛星等的觀測結果,仔細地研究分析了一個副磁暴事件。我們特別利用討論副磁暴極光弧的珠狀亮點結構、方位角模式數 (azimuthal mode number)、極光弧的光強度變化、西向電噴流活動、地面Pi2頻段的波擾動等多項特徵活動,以探究副磁暴極光弧的活動變化以及討論地面測站所量測到的低頻擾動訊號成因。我們發現這Pi2頻段的波擾動與副磁暴極光弧的活動形態有關。我們討論了這些發生在副磁暴啟動期間所觀測到的現象所蘊涵的物理意義。在第二個研究中,我們以統計性的方式探討了出現在副磁暴極光弧上的亮點結構與近地電漿片中Pi2頻段的波擾動的關聯性。我們發現了副磁暴極光弧的方位角模式數隨著副磁暴極光弧的生成位置的緯度遞減。我們也發現副磁暴極光弧的亮點結構移動速度與近地電漿片中的Pi2頻段的Y方向波擾動相關。由於動力膨脹不穩定性的特徵之一就是高方位角模式數,在此論文中我們提出動力膨脹不穩定性來解釋各種在觀測研究中所發現到的副磁暴啟動的現象。
The purpose of this dissertation is to understand the phenomena leading to substorm onset and explore the relation between the observations in the near-Earth magnetosphere and in the ionosphere. In particular, we present two observational studies, which provide new insights to the substorm onset scenario. Firstly, we study thoroughly a specific substorm event using synoptic observations of the THEMIS ground-based All-Sky-Imagers, the ISUAL CCD Imager aboard the FORMOSAT-2 satellite, the ground-based magnetometers, and the geosynchronous satellites. In particular, we investigated the behavior of substorm auroral arcs and ground low-frequency fluctuations, in terms of the bead-like arc brightening spot structures of the substorm arcs and their azimuthal mode number, and the concurrent behavior of the arc intensity, the westward electroject intensity, and the ground Pi2 pulsation amplitude. The Pi2 pulsation is found to be related to the substorm auroral arc formation. We discuss the physical implications of these observed phenomena. Secondly, we investigated the statistical correlation between the wave-like brightening spot structure of the auroral arcs and the unstable Pi2 pulsations observed in the near-Earth plasma sheet by THEMIS satellites. We found that the azimuthal mode number of the wave-like substorm arcs decreases with increasing geomagnetic latitude of the substorm arc location. We also found that the propagation velocity of the wave-like arc bright spots is linearly correlated with the propagation velocity of the unstable Pi2 δBy pulsations in the plasma sheet. Finally, we proposed that the kinetic ballooning instability with high azimuthal mode number can explain the observed substorm onset phenomena.
Chapter 1 Introduction...........1
1.1 The Concept of Aurora Substorm………………………………………….…1
1.2 Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling………………………………………..5
1.3 Magnetotail Dynamics of Substorm Onset Scenario……………………...…6
1.4 Requirement for the Near-Earth Substorm Onset Theory…………………...9
Chapter 2 Ballooning Instability Application to Substorm Onset……………….11
2.1 Introduction……………………………………………..…………………..11
2.2 MHD Theory of Ballooning Instability……………………………………..12
2.3 Kinetic Effect on Balloonign Instability………………………………….15
2.4 Motivation and Organization of this Dissertation…………………………..15
Chapter 3 Observational and Analysis Methods ……………………………..18
3.1 THEMIS Mission………...………………………………………………....18
3.2 ISUAL Payload onboard FORMOSAT-2 satellite…………………………..21
3.3 Geosynchronous Satellites…………...……………………………………..23
3.4 Hilbert-Huang Transformation Analysis……………………………………25
3.5 Cross Correlation……………………………………………………………30
Chapter 4 Behavior of Auroral Arcs and Pi2 Waves in December 21, 2006 Substorm Event: Implication for the kinetic ballooning instability…………32
4.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………32
4.2 Observations………………………………………………………………..36
4.3 Auroral Substorm Arc and Westward Electrojet…………………………....48
4.4 Ground Pi1 and Pi2 Pulsations and Auroral Arc Instensity…………….…..53
4.5 Energetic Particle Injection at Geosynchronous Orbit……………………...60
4.6 Summary and Discussion………………………………………………...…64
Chapter 5 Statistical Relation between wave-like auroral arcs and unstable Pi2 pulsations in plasma sheet during substorms…………………………………70
5.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………70
5.2 Auroral Substorm Events…………………………………………………...73
5.3 A Specific Substorm Event…………………………………………………75
5.4 Relative Timing between Pulsation Initiation and Dipolarization Onset in Near-Earth Plasma Sheet .……………………………………………………83
5.5 Correlation between Wave-like Auroral Substorm Arcs and Pi2 waves in Plasma Sheet……………………………………….....86
5.6 Discussion and Summary…………………………………………………...90
Chapter 6 Summary and Discussion……………………………………………....92
6.1 Summary of Observations…………………………………………………..92
6.2 Features and Behaviors of Substorm Arcs Prior to Auroral Expansion…….94
6.3 Substorm-Associated Wave Activity in the Ionosphere…………………….95
6.4 Correlation between Features in Ionosphere and near-Earth plasma sheet: Statistical Study………………………………………………………………96
6.5 Substorm Initiation Scenario………………………………………………..97
Appendix A AE Index………………………………...99
Appendix B THEMIS Instruments …………………....100
Appendix C T96 Model …………………………....101
References ……………………………......102

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