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研究生:沈揚庭
研究生(外文):Yang-TingShen
論文名稱:識域:科技中介、社群融入、空間擴增的學習環境
論文名稱(外文):Smart Learning Landscape: Technology-mediated, Community-engaged, and Space-augmented Learning Environments
指導教授:鄭泰昇鄭泰昇引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tay-Sheng Jeng
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:建築學系碩博士班
學門:建築及都市規劃學門
學類:建築學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:209
中文關鍵詞:未來教室學習環境學習社群互動評量詮釋資料
外文關鍵詞:future classroomlearning environmentlearning communityinteractive assessmentmetadata
相關次數:
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本研究定義未來的學習環境應以學習者為中心,並在科技中介、社群融入、與空間擴增三個核心價值的交織下架構出未來學習的藍圖。科技會以資通訊技術和雲端平台的方式無所不在的介入於學習過程當中;而學習者會融入於虛實共構的環境中,和同儕、指導者、與專家相互建立多邊關係,形成合作的社群學習;最後空間則會乘載科技的中介與社群的融入,以彈性複合和多元情境的擴增模式組織學習情境,打造出為數位原生世代所建構的未來學習環境。為建構未來的學習環境,本研究首先發展出學習象限圖對現行的學習模式與環境進行歸類,找出其中的秩序,並透過科技、社群、空間三個核心價值對其加以分析,解構出具備潛力的因子,再重組因子建構出六個組織原則,包括彈性適性、遍佈融入、多元合作、互動詮釋、健全創新、綠能永續,作為發展創新前瞻學習環境的理論基礎。為具體印證六大原則的理論架構,本研究融合六大原則發展出四個具備實踐力的操作概念,分別是教室即是攝影棚、教室即是工作坊、教室即是社群網、以及教室即是出版社這四個概念,實際於建築系的舊有空間建構出一間稱為未來教室iStudio的學習環境,並在落成後以生活實驗的想法將其開放使用,從真實的使用中進行場域的實驗,同時進行量化的問卷與質性的訪談,擷取使用者的經驗並加以評估分析,驗證未來教室 iStudio的使用性,並做為持續改進未來學習環境的基礎。

本研究的結論與貢獻如下:1. 初期成果:創造學習者中心的適性情境導向學習環境,2. 中期影響:教室藉由詮釋資料庫轉變成學習者的第三方學習夥伴,3. 未來創見:學習社群的社交貢獻創造出知識擴散的新途徑。

This research defines Technology-mediated, Community-engaged, and Space-augmented as the core values of future learning environments. Technologies including ICT and cloud platform will mediate in the leaning process. Communities both existing in the virtual and physical world will engage in multiple relationships which consist of teachers, peers, experts, and learners. Those two elements will be contained by spaces which augment with flexible and diverse spatial scenarios. Finally those three core values will integrate together to shape the next generation learning environments.

This research develops a logic process for the future learning environments probing and building. First of all, the learning quadrant diagram is built for the classification of all learning methods. Based on this diagram, the potential elements associated with technology, community, and space can be identified. Then those elements are re-united in the logic way to generate 6 principles of the learning environment framework, including Flexible Adaptation, Ubiquitous Engagement, Multilateral Collaboration, Interactive Annotation, Integral Creativity, and Green Sustainability. Finally, 6 principles are adapted into 4 concepts including classroom as workshop, classroom as studio, classroom as social network, and classroom as publisher to build the practical learning environment: iStudio.

The future classroom, iStudio, located at the NCKU architecture department was built in 2010 based on this research’s theory. iStudio is run as a living lab for the demonstration and evaluation of usability. According to the quantitative and qualitative user studies, this research concludes: 1. iStudio creates the adaptive situated learning environment with learner-central design. 2. Classroom shifts to the 3rd learning partner by the metadata generated from learning communities. 3. The outcomes from the social interaction of learning communities shape the creative way for knowledge expending and spreading.

目錄
識域Smart Learning Landscape 1
中文摘要 II
Abstract III
誌謝 IV
目錄 V
圖次 VII
表次 X
第一章 導論 1
1-1 研究動機 2
1-2 議題探討 4
1-3 命題假說 5
1-4 研究架構 6
第二章 文獻探討 8
2-1 數位時代教育的典範轉移 8
2-1-1 未來人才需求的轉型 8
2-1-2 數位原生世代的學習方法轉型 11
2-2 新型態學習環境的產生 14
2-2-1 科技中介的強化型學習環境 15
2-2-2 社群融入所主導的學習環境 19
2-2-3 空間擴增的多元學習環境 21
第三章 學習環境之構成模型 24
3-1 學習環境的三個構面與趨勢 24
3-2 解構學習劇本與構成元素 25
3-2-1 象限一:個人與教師同步之學習環境 28
3-2-2 象限二:個人與教師非同步之學習環境 34
3-2-3 象限三:群體與教師非同步之學習環境 44
3-2-4 象限四:群體與教師同步之學習環境 52
3-3 混成的未來學習環境 60
第四章 未來學習環境之設計原則 64
4-1 原則一:彈性適性(Flexible Adaptation) 65
4-2 原則二:遍佈融入(Ubiquitous Engagement) 73
4-3 原則三:多元合作(Multilateral Collaboration) 80
4-4 原則四:互動詮釋(Interactive Annotation) 85
4-5 原則五:健全創新(Integral Creativity) 91
4-6 原則六:綠能永續(Green Sustainability) 94
4-7 小結:學習環境的六大原則與構成條件 95
第五章 未來學習環境之發展原型 96
5-1 未來教室 iStudio 96
5-1-1 教室即工作坊 97
5-1-2 教室即攝影棚 108
5-1-3 教室即社群網 113
5-1-4 教室即出版社 120
第六章 評估設計與驗證 124
6-1 設計過程與評估方法 124
6-1-1 初期階段:對象調查與場域調查 125
6-1-2 中期階段:專家參與 129
6-1-3 末期階段:使用者評估 131
6-2 量化的使用性評估結果與討論 137
6-2-1 評估結果 137
6-2-2 評估結果分析與討論 141
6-3 質性評估與討論 146
第七章 討論與結論 157
7-1 討論 157
7-1-1 初期成果:學習者導向的適性情境教室 157
7-1-2 中期影響:整合社群力量使教室轉形成第三方學習夥伴 160
7-1-3 未來創見:打造數位原生世代的學習社群巨人 167
7-2 結論 172
7-2-1 研究貢獻 172
7-2-2 後續研究 176
參考文獻 178
附錄 193
附錄A 194
附錄B 202
附錄C 206
附錄D 208

圖次
圖 一 1: 數位原生時代的學習環境 – 識域:科技中介、社群融入、空間擴增 5
圖 一 2: 本研究之研究方法架構流程 7
圖 二 1: 21世紀學習模型: 學習不再只是一套標準套用到所有學習者 13
圖 二 2: 未來的學習環境應整合科技、社群、與空間三個面向 14
圖 二 3: CLASSROOM 2000中的教室可以擷取上課活動與經驗並在COWEB上進行分享 15
圖 二 4: TEAL教室將學生分組並提供小組內部的電腦介面以及全體共享的多媒體介面 16
圖 二 5: 雲端運算、可攜式科技、資通訊科技三者的整合形成遍佈學習的環境 17
圖 二 6: 新加坡的COTF未來教室以嵌入式螢幕和電子書包構成隨處可學習的環境 18
圖 二 7: TED於2012年正式推出TED教育(TED-ED) 20
圖 二 8: 工作營的三個學習模式 21
圖 二 9: 成大LIVING LAB工作坊的三種不同學習活動與對應空間模式 22
圖 二 10: 荷蘭台夫特建築學院的BK CITY整合所有設計課所需的空間 23
圖 三 1: 學習環境的三個構成要件: 科技(T)、空間(S)、社群(C) 24
圖 三 2: 學習象限圖: 學習者(個人到群體)、時間(老師同步介入與否)、空間(地點導向與網路導向)三者關係圖 25
圖 三 3: 各種學習類型在學習象限的落點 27
圖 三 4: 個人與教師同步之實體地點導向學習:面談教學 29
圖 三 5: 一對一式的小尺度工作型空間案例 30
圖 三 6: 以時間軸典藏個人學習歷程案例 31
圖 三 7: 個人與教師同步之網路空間導向學習:點對點教學 32
圖 三 8: 兩個分離的場域進行溝通時只需要做部分的關鍵情境重現而非整體的擬真 33
圖 三 9: 個人與教師非同步之實體地點導向學習:行動學習 34
圖 三 10: 使用者透過GPS(左圖)或QR CODE(右圖)等相關ICT設備取得該場域學習資訊 35
圖 三 11: FACEBOOK推出地點導向的資訊服務名為FACEBOOK PLACES 36
圖 三 12: 龐畢度中心(CENTRE GEORGES POMPIDOU)將設備管線外露並透過不同的顏色彰顯其機能與用途 38
圖 三 13: MIT的MEDIA LAB讓研究室之間的空間邊界透明化甚至消失 38
圖 三 14: 利用擴增實境技術(AR)與定位系統將校園生態水池背後運作管線視覺化疊合於實際場域(沈揚庭, 2005) 39
圖 三 15: 個人與教師非同步之網路空間導向學習:線上學習 40
圖 三 16: GOOGLE閱讀器可以透過RSS將各個社群網站的即時資訊整合到同一平台 41
圖 三 17: 客製化的學習平台整合必要的學習資源] 42
圖 三 18: 專業社群可作為資訊過濾的管道 42
圖 三 19: 維基百科提供權威性的系統化知識庫 43
圖 三 20: 工作坊的標準操作流程 44
圖 三 21: 群體與教師非同步之實體地點導向學習:合作學習 45
圖 三 22: 彈性的課桌椅方便移動與組合 46
圖 三 23: 燈光分區控制可因應同時發生的不同上課需求分區控制燈光 46
圖 三 24:左圖: 高架地板與輕鋼架天花板可以解決佈線問題,並維持活動空間單純化 右圖: GEORGIA TECH的圖書館閱讀室以吊掛可動插座的方式提供電源 47
圖 三 25: 無隔間的設計以家具定義出不同的學習情境 47
圖 三 26: 群體與教師非同步之網路空間導向學習:協同學習 49
圖 三 27: 社群網站FACEBOOK透過粉絲團來組織學習社群 50
圖 三 28: 群體與教師同步之實體地點導向學習:講授教學 52
圖 三 29: 實物攝影應用於大型演講 53
圖 三 30: 美國部分大學課堂已開始採用社群網站(TWITTER)作為輔助上課互動的工具 54
圖 三 31: 微網誌提供數據化的社群評價成果 55
圖 三 32: 群體與教師同步之網路空間導向學習:遠距教學 56
圖 三 33: 遠距教學的空間透過介面的適性調整適應不同的群體 57
圖 三 34: SKYPE提供的多人同步互動交流功能,形成虛擬的學習社群 58
圖 三 35: 根據科技、社群、空間三個構面的區塊歸類與重組構成因子 60
圖 四 1: 未來學習環境的六大原則 64
圖 四 2: 基於KOLB的學習循環模型所演繹之學習劇本 65
圖 四 3: 焦點型情境的空間配置、科技介入、與社群活動規劃 68
圖 四 4: 多核型情境的空間配置、科技介入、與社群活動規劃 69
圖 四 5: 動線型情境的空間配置、科技介入、與社群活動規劃 70
圖 四 6: 可適性擴充的輔助型空間類型包含私密型、社交型、研究型、工作型四種 70
圖 四 7: 未來學習環境願景圖: 學習者中心的學習活動、彈性而多元的空間使用劇本、支援社群合作學習、連結虛擬與實質以及遠距與近端、擴增性空間強化學習特徵、自然通風採光的健康環境、綠能的可視化與實際運用 72
圖 四 8: 電腦輔助遍布學習(CSUL)的學習環境分類象限 74
圖 四 9: 遍佈學習平台依照移動性高低所產生的三種服務模式 75
圖 四 10: 遍佈學習平台的架構(ARCHITECTURE)、終端(TERMINAL)、與應用(APPLICATION) 77
圖 四 11: 遍佈學習平台的實際整合構想 78
圖 四 12: 以學習者為中心與其他學習成員(指導者、同儕、專家)四者間的關係 81
圖 四 13: 學習者透過學習平台與其他三者學習成員間所產生的六種學習活動 83
圖 四 14: 語意網對本體的詮釋資料可以提供互動的加值網路服務 85
圖 四 15: 一般學習資源處理與具備互動詮釋介面的學習資源處理兩者之流程之比較 86
圖 四 16: 互動標記嵌入式介面原型,運用於閱讀文章 87
圖 四 17: 根據社群過濾器所提供之不同限制條件的運用所產生文章過濾效果 90
圖 四 18: 以工作室導向的課程共有三層活動分類 92
圖 四 19: 數位出版刊物的內容分類 93
圖 五 1: 未來教室ISTUDIO的前身 97
圖 五 2: 未來教室的可動作座椅使用情形 99
圖 五 3: 智慧變形桌板可以在桌面與教學白板之間變形轉換,並可相互組合 100
圖 五 4: 智慧變形桌可以支援講演、合作、展演三種不同使用劇本 101
圖 五 5: 未來教室燈光分區計畫:前中後三區的環境光源與聚光等級地板燈輔助光源 103
圖 五 6: 使用者利用傢俱自行定義出領域 104
圖 五 7: 未來教室ISTUDIO的設計具備多方向性的使用機能 105
圖 五 8: 彈性核心情境導向教室的組成架構圖 106
圖 五 9: 未來教室的三個複合模式 107
圖 五 10: 以地點導向環場攝影機追蹤活動發生地點並記錄活動過程 108
圖 五 11: 環場攝影機所設定的三個主要拍攝活動地點 109
圖 五 12:教室內設置三處劇本互動地板,經觸發後會轉換燈號並連動控制對應的支援設備 110
圖 五 13: 奇美咖啡廳成大叩門演講實況 111
圖 五 14: 遠端空間同步收看奇美咖啡廳成大叩門演講實況 112
圖 五 15: 同步標記系統(SYNTAG)介面的三個互動詮釋機制設計元素 115
圖 五 16: 同步標記系統由同儕社群共同評量上課內容的即時詮釋圖表 115
圖 五 17: 同步標記系統的系統架構圖 116
圖 五 18: 同步標記系統透過社群標記的高峰有效的回顧精華影片片段 118
圖 五 19: 互動標記系統的同步模式(左圖)與非同步模式(右圖)的視覺化圖表有分別進行累計 119
圖 五 20: 以時間軸的概念典藏教室活動紀錄 120
圖 五 21: ISTUDIO舉辦過的活動以及透過同步標記系統產出的學習影片 121
圖 五 22: 經由社群評價切割影片並產出新的影片片段集錦 123
圖 六 1: 使用者中心導向之設計使用性評估流程圖 124
圖 六 2: 學習象限與相關學習環境案例落點分析 130
圖 六 3: 未來教室ISTUDIO使用者評估雷達圖 137
圖 六 4: 使用者評估問卷各題使用者滿意度百分比 138
圖 六 5: 隨機抽樣6位使用者的各別評估結果雷達圖 139
圖 六 6: 未來教室六大原則綜合性評估結果 140
圖 六 7: 左圖: 各別使用者與整體使用者差異性比較 右圖: 各別使用者之間差異性比較 140
圖 六 8: 整體滿意度分布比例 141
圖 六 9: 使用性評估 各題滿意度百分比與分布圖 143

表次
表 一 1: 學習環境演進的歷史過程比較(HANEBECK, 2000) 3
表 一 2: 目前社會演進現象與學習環境的現狀比較 4
表 二 1: 三個世代對於工作的態度與價值觀比較 9
表 三 1: 個人與教師同步地的地點導向學習環境因子 31
表 三 2: 個人與教師同步的網路導向學習環境因子 33
表 三 3: 個人與教師非同步之實體地點導向學習環境因子 39
表 三 4: 個人與教師非同步之網路空間導向學習 43
表 三 5: 群體與教師非同步之實體地點導向學習:合作學習 48
表 三 6: 群體與教師非同步之網路空間導向學習 51
表 三 7: 群體與教師同步之實體地點導向學習 55
表 三 8: 群體與教師同步之網路空間導向學習 59
表 三 9: 彈性適性的學習環境所包含的三種構面因子 61
表 三 10: 遍佈融入的學習環境所包含的三種構面因子 62
表 三 11: 多元合作的學習環境所包含的三種構面因子 62
表 三 12: 多元合作的學習環境所包含的三種構面因子 62
表 三 13: 健全創新的學習環境所包含的三種構面因子 63
表 三 14: 綠能永續的學習環境所包含的三種構面因子 63
表 四 1: 學習社群運用學習平台所產生之服務分類 84
表 四 2: 等級式搜尋 89
表 四 3: 等級式加上分類式搜尋 89
表 四 4: 學習環境的六大原則與附屬構成之條件 95
表 五 1: 工作坊三個模式的使用對象與特徵描述 98
表 六 1: 建築系所設計相關課程與活動調查 127
表 六 2: 設計相關課程的構成活動與支持環境分類 128
表 六 3: 專家參與的認知演練調查問卷 - 以眼角發表活動為例 129
表 六 4: 未來教室ISTUDIO所發生過的活動紀錄列表 133
表 六 5: 5階梯度量測將問題從完全不同意到完全同意分成5個等級 134
表 六 6: 學習環境的原則、構成條件、與評估問卷案例 136
表 六 7: 六大指標各別滿意度得分 142
表 六 8: 未來教室ISTUDIO使用者質性調查結果 147

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網站文獻
1國立成功大學建築系未來教室
http://ialab.tw/istudio/main
2智慧生活互動網路平台Smart Living 3.0
http://www.smartliving.org.tw
3Louis Kahn’s lecture
http://www.fpaa.org/child/dpaip_louis.html
4摩爾定律:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moore's_law
5問題導向學習:
http://www.ncsu.edu/pbl/design.html
6工作室導向學習(SBL):
http://iis.cse.eng.auburn.edu/~sbl/index.php
7p21未來教育:
http://www.p21.org/
84 Great Twitter Applications for Teachers Using Twitter In The Classroom: http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=qYWYSI_j-kk#!
9The Twitter Experiment - Twitter in the Classroom:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6WPVWDkF7U8&feature=player_embedded
10德國包浩斯學程:
http://designhistory.org/Bauhaus3.html
11具時間軸的個人化數位典藏系統Dipity: http://www.dipity.com/inntoon/Graphic_Design/
12數位學習平台 London MLE http://webfronter.com/mlewebsite/mle/menu/mnu1.shtml#m-menu1_Tools_
13 社群的資訊過濾功能 Ushahidi:
http://blog.ushahidi.com/index.php/2009/02/04/crisis-info-crowdsourcing-the-filter/
14Workshop definition in Wikipedia:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Workshop_(disambiguation)
15燈光分區控制Litecontrol:
http://www.litecontrol.com/
16成功大學規劃設計學院 2009年Living Lab Workshop
https://sites.google.com/site/livinglabsworkshops09/
17Web 2.0 Definitions in Wikipedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_2.0
18IBM: Social tagging, rating, commenting, and sharing of Web pageshttp://www.ibm.com/developerworks/web/library/wa-webintelligence/index.html?ca=drs-
19Semantic Web Definition in Wikipedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semantic_Web#Web_3.0
20The Digital Publishing strategy Academy Classroom
http://www.digitaltrainingacademy.com/publishingstrategyclassroom/
21Blogging on 21st Century Teaching and Learning
http://www.classroom-aid.com/blog/bid/77828/Thoughts-from-Working-with-iBooks-Author
22高效能E畫未來教室
http://efc.so-easy.com.tw/efuture_classroom05.htm
23Cognitive Walkthrough in Wikipedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_walkthrough
24數位原生 Digital Natives in Wikipedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_native
252010資訊傳輸量遠超過歷年總和
http://mashable.com/2011/10/20/kirk-skaugen-web-2/
26微軟:未來學校 Microsoft: School of the Future
http://www.microsoft.com/education/en-us/leadership/partners_in_learning/Pages/School-of-the-Future.aspx
27TED 官方網站
http://www.ted.com/
28TED Initiation Day
http://www.ted.com/tedx/events/328
29TED教育(TED-Ed)
http://education.ted.com/
30芝加哥城市大學遠距學習中心(CDL)
http://www.ccc.edu/services/Pages/CDL-Broadcast-Schedule.aspx
31麻省理工開放線上課程網頁
http://www.myoops.org/twocw/mit/index.htm
32國際問卷評估委員會組織IRB
http://www.irbservices.com/irbservices/Home.html
33IRB in Wikipedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Institutional_review_board
34Diff in Wikipedia
http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digg

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