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論文名稱(外文):The Investigation of Inhibiting Interference Function and Compensatory Responses in Elderly
指導教授(外文):Shu-Lan Hsieh
外文關鍵詞:AgingFlanker taskCompensatory responsesEvent-related potentialLateralized readiness potential
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本研究欲探討年輕人與老年人的旁側夾擊效應是否有差異,並觀察老年人是否會啟動補償反應以克服抑制方面可能的缺損;也探討老年人的補償反應是否會隨著作業要求的程度不同而改變。為達目標,本研究於三個旁側夾擊派典實驗間操弄兩種「刺激-反應」配置情況:「刺激-反應」相容(PRO)與「刺激-反應」不相容(ANTI)情況,並利用此兩種不同情況的嘗試次比例的多寡來調整作業要求的程度。年輕人與老年人於旁側夾擊的作業中,要針對中間的目標物做反應,並抑制兩旁干擾物方向的影響,無論其方向性是與目標物一致、不一致或無干擾的中性情況。本研究除了利用行為測量外,也量測多個事件相關腦電位波(event-related potentials, ERPs)與側邊準備腦電位波(lateralized readiness potential, LRP)來系統性觀察老年人是否能產生補償反應以抵抗旁側物帶來的干擾。結果發現三個實驗間老年人反應時間的旁側夾擊效應無增加趨勢,老年人整體正確率較高,但未隨著作業要求程度的改變觀察到正確率旁側夾擊效應改變的趨勢。此外由ERPs與LRP的指標我們也發現老年人整體運用了一些補償反應以彌補較缺損的抑制干擾能力。雖然這些補償反應並未隨著作業要求程度的變換而改變,不過藉由腦電位波的變化我們發現老年人會傾向投注較多視覺注意力於目標物上,且採用較保守小心的策略與高反應閾值於抑制干擾物上。透過這些策略與補償反應的運用,老年人是可以如同年輕人般有效的抑制干擾物的影響。
The present study investigated whether there is an age-related flanker effect, whether older adults employ compensatory responses to overcome flanker interferences, and whether older adults’ compensatory responses may vary as a function of the degree of task demands. To achieve these goals, we manipulated different degrees of task demands in a flanker-task paradigm, by arranging different proportion of two stimulus-response mapping rules that includes compatible (PRO) or incompatible (ANTI) responses. The young and older adults focused the directions on centrally presented target arrows and inhibiting to the opposite direction (incongruent), the same direction (congruent), or neutral flankers. Behavioral data, event-related potentials (ERPs), and lateralized readiness potential (LRP) were measured to observe whether the older adults resist flanker interference. Throughout the three experiments of different degrees of task demands, we found the similar amount of flanker effects in reaction time between young and older adults. The older adults showed the greater overall accuracy and decreased flanker effects on accuracy across three experiments compared to the young adults. The older adults engaged some compensatory responses were comfirmed by the ERP and LRP components. Although these compensatory responses in older adults did not vary as a function of different degrees of task demands, the results suggest the older adults recruited a top-down strategy of increased attention to the target arrow, and adopt a higher response threshold to maintain the better performance. Through the engagement of compensatory responses, the older adults could overcome the flanker interference compared to young adults.
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 認知老化研究簡介 1
1.2 抑制功能與作業派典介紹 4
1.3 抑制功能與老化策略控制的進一步操弄 7
1.3.1 補償反應的引發及學習介入 8
1.3.2 知覺層面的操弄 8
1.3.3 比例的操弄 9
1.3.4 動作與知覺層面的抑制 11
1.4 本研究派典 12
1.5 研究動機與預期結果 16
第二章 研究方法 18
2.0 前言 18
2.1 受試者 18
2.2 實驗設備與刺激 21
2.3 實驗流程與設計 22
2.4 電生理記錄 23
2.5 資料分析 24
2.5.1 行為資料(正確率、反應時間) 24
2.5.2 腦波資料 24 刺激鎖定腦電位波: N1, N2和P3 25 反應鎖定腦電位波: ERN和CRN 25 刺激鎖定側邊準備腦電位波 25
第三章 研究結果 27
3.1 行為資料 27
3.1.1 正確率 27
3.1.2 反應時間 29
3.2 腦波資料 31
3.2.1 刺激鎖定腦電位波: N1, N2, P3 31 N1峰值振幅 31 N2平均振幅 33 P3峰值潛時 36
3.2.2 反應鎖定腦電位波: ERN, CRN 39 ERN峰間幅值 39 CRN峰間幅值 42
3.2.3 刺激鎖定側邊準備腦電位波 44 LRP於不相容情況下不一致情況負向反折平均振幅 45 LRP正確方向波峰振幅 46 LRP 20%正確方向潛時 47
第四章 總結與討論 51
4.1 行為資料(正確率與反應時間) 52
4.2 腦波資料 54
4.2.1 N1 54
4.2.2 N2 55
4.2.3 P3 57
4.2.4 ERN 58
4.2.5 CRN 59
4.2.6 LRP 60
4.3 研究限制與混淆變項 61
4.4 結論 63
參考文獻 65
附錄 73

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