( 您好!臺灣時間:2021/07/29 13:28
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::


論文名稱(外文):Experimental Studies on Self-Ignition of a Hydrogen Transverse Jet in a Supersonic Free-Stream
指導教授(外文):Chih-Yung Wen
外文關鍵詞:supersonic combustion ramjethydrogen ignitionSchliren imageOH-chemiluminescence
  • 被引用被引用:1
  • 點閱點閱:221
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:56
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
對於流場中著火過程的實驗研究,我們利用位於國立成功大學的反射式震波風洞來模擬出超燃沖壓引擎在馬赫六飛行條件下其燃燒室入口的流場環境(條件為M = 2.0, T0=2000K, p0=12MPa, T=1200K, p= 1.5MPa )。對於燃料的噴注(氫氣),我們設計出一座上游(背向)式爆轟管,並能成功產生達421K的預熱氫氣的噴注。在實驗中,我們在一平板上的一個直徑為2mm的噴孔中將氫氣噴注至超音速流場中。再以高速攝影機和紋影結合的方法對流場進行觀察,亦應用增強式攝影機(ICCD)記錄OH自然螢光影像,以探討其可燃性。

Fundamental to the success of hypersonic air-breathing propulsion system are the efficient injection, mixing, and combustion process that occur inside the combustion chamber. This research is focused on the self-ignitability of a transverse fuel, hydrogen gas, injected into a simulated supersonic combustor environment.
Our experimental approach uses a reflected shock tunnel located in National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan, to provide the high total enthalpy flow associated with the scramjet combustor entry condition of M = 2.0, T0 = 2000 K, p0 = 12 MPa, T = 1200 K and p = 1.5 MPa. A upstream (also called backward) detonation-driven shock tube is also built and used successfully to supply hydrogen fuel at up to T0 = 505 K and p0 = 16.5 MPa for the experiment. In the first set of tests, the ignition of the transverse hydrogen injection from a 2mm wall orifice in a flat plate. In the investigations, a high speed camera is used indicates the location of the shock structures and an intensify CCD (ICCD) detector with hydroxyl (OH) radical wave length filter ( 307 nm) is used to map the regions of ignition in the near-field by the intensity of OH-chemiluminescence. Results show that the significant spontaneous ignition can be clearly observed in the recirculation region caused by the interaction between the traverse hydrogen fuel jet and also in the large scale eddies structure in downstream. Two heat flux sensors and PCB pressure transducer are flush-mounded on the model and also help to give a sign of combustion.

摘要 I
Abstract II
Acknowledgements III
Contents IV
List of Table VI
List of Figures VII
Nomenclature XII
Subscripts XIII

1.1 Background and Motivation 1
1.1.1 The Scramjet flight trajectory and combustor entry conditions 3
1.1.2 Types of ground test facilities for supersonic combustion researches 8
1.1.3 Flow-field features of jets in supersonic crossflows 13
1.2 Thesis Objectives 16

2.1 Introduction 17
2.2 Theoretical Review and Tunnel Operation 19
2.2.1 Tunnel operation 20
2.2.2 Unsteady gasdynamics in a shock tube 22
2.3 Tunnel Sub-systems 26
2.3.1 Gas supply system 26
2.3.2 Data acquisition system 27
2.4 Tunnel Performance and Calibration 30
2.4.1 Numerical estimations of reservoir and free-stream conditions 30
2.4.2 Measurement of flow properties 36
2.4.3 Shock tube and nozzle performance 38

3.1 Introduction and review 48
3.2 Fuel Injection system design 51
3.2.1 Forward-detonation shock tube design 51
3.2.2 Backward-detonation shock tunnel design 54
3.2.3 Pressure measurement and calibrations 59
3.3 Timing and Synchronization 65

4.1 Heat Transfer Rate Measurement 67
4.2 Flow Visualization Techniques 71
4.2.1 High-speed Schlieren imaging system 71
4.2.2 OH-Chemiluminescence imaging 72

5.1 Introduction 74
5.2 Test Model 74
5.3 Test Conditions 76
5.4 Experiment Results 78
5.4.1 Heat transfer rate measurements 78
5.4.2 Pressure measurement 81
5.4.3 High speed schlieren images 82
5.4.4 Chemiluminescence images 85

6.1 Conclusion 88
6.2 Recommendation for future work 90
6.2.1 The improvement 90
6.2.2 Jet compressibility analysis 90

References 94
Appendix 102

[1]W. H. Heiser and D. T. Pratt, “Hypersonic Airbreathing propulsion, AIAA Education Series, Washington, DC, 1994
[2]P. R. Hallion, “The Hyperaonic Revolution, Vol. I: From MaxValir to Project Prime, 1924-1967, Aeronatical System Division, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH, 1987
[3]P. R. Hallion, “The Hyperaonic Revolution, Vol. II: FromScramjet to the National Aero-Space Plane, 1964-1967, Aeronatical System Division, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH, 1987
[4]A. Ferri, “Mixing-controlled Combustion, Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 5, pp. 301-338, 1973
[5]A. Kumar, D.M. Bushmnell and M.Y. Hussaini, “Mixing augmentation technique for hypersonic velocity scramjet, Journal of Propulsion and Power Vol. 5(5), pp. 514-522, 1989
[6]F. S. Billing, “Research on Supersonic Combustion, AIAA-92-0001, 30th Aerospace Science Meeting & Exhibit, Reno, Nevada, 1992
[7]C. S. Craddock, “Computation Optimization of Scramjets and Shock Tunnel Nozzles, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Queensland, 1999
[8]Anonymous, “U.S. Standard Atmosphere, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1976
[9]J. D. Anderson, “Introduction to Flight , McGraw-Hill, New York, 1989
[10]H. S. Tsien, “Similarity law of hypersonic flows, Journal of Mathematics and Physics, Vol. 25, pp. 244-251, 1946
[11]J. D. Anderson, “Hypersonic and High-Temperature Gas Dynamics, 2nd Edition. AIAA, 2006
[12]Y. H. Guo, “Problem in Modern Aerodynamics, Chinese Science Bulletin, Vol. 10, pp. 289-295, 1957, (in Chinese)
[13]C. Park, “Non-equilibrium Hypersonic Aerothermodynamics , John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1990
[14]M. J. Lighthill, “Dynamics of a Dissociating Gas, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 2, pp. 1-32, 1957
[15]F. K. Lu and D. E. Marren, “Advanced Hypersonic Test Facilities, AIAA, 2002
[16]J. G. Li ,G. Yu , Y. Zhang, Y. Li and D. X. Qian, “Experimental Studies on Self-Ignition of Hydrogen/Air Supersonic Combustion, Journal of Propulsion Power, Vol. 13(4), pp. 538-542, 1997
[17]C. J. Sung, J. G. Li, G. Yu and C. K. Law, “Chemical Kinetics and Self-Ignition in a Model Supersonic Hydrogen-Air Combustor, AIAA Journal, Vol. 37(2), pp. 208-214, 1999
[18]C. Segal, “The Scramjet Engine; Processes and Characteristics, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2009
[19]H. Hornung, “Experimental Hypervelocity Flow Simulation, Needs, Achievements and Limitations, First Pacific International Conference on Aerospace Science and Technology, Tainan, Taiwan, 1993
[20]C. Park, “Experimental Simulation and Evaluation of Chemical Effects, Von Kármán Institute for Fluid dynamics Lecture Series, Aerothermochemistry for Hypersonic Technology, Belgium, 1995
[21]J. I. Erdos, R. J. Bakos, A. Castrogiovanni and R. C. Rogers, “Dual Mode Shock-Expansion/Reflected Shock Tunnel, AIAA paper 97-0560, 1997
[22]R. J. Bélanger and H. Hornung, “Transverse Jet Mixing and Combustion Experiments in Hypervelocity Flows Journal of Propulsion and Power, Vol. 12(1), pp. 86-192, 1996
[23]T. Albrechcinski, D. Boyer, K. Chadwick and J. Lordi, “Calspan’s Upgraded 96’ Hypersonic Shock Tunnel: Its Development and Application in the Performance of Research and Test at Higher Enthalpies, AIAA Paper 95-0236, 1995
[24] A. Paull, R .J. Stalker, “Scramjet Testing in the T4 Impulse Facility, 8th AIAA International Space Planes and Hypersonic System and Technologies Conference, 1998
[25]K. Hannemann, “Hypersonic Flight and (Re)-Entry in Germany – Overview and Selected Projects, 17th AIAA International Space Planes and Hypersonic System and Technologies Conference, 2011
[26]H. Miyajima, “Design Concept of the NAL/NASDA High-enthalpy Shock Tunnel’, 4th International Workshop on Shock Tube Technology, 1994
[27]R. J. Bakos, J. Tamagno, O. Rizkalla, N.V. Pulsonetti, W. Chinitz and J. I. Erdos, “Hypersonic Mixing and Combustion Studies in the Hypulse Facility, Journal of Propulsion and Power, Vol. 8(4), pp. 90-906, 1992
[28]R. J. Bakos, J. Tamagno, R. Trucco, O. Rizkalla, W. Chinitz and J. I. Erdos, “Mixing and combustion studies Using discrete orifice injection at hypervelocity flight conditions, Journal of Propulsion and Power, Vol. 8(6), pp. 1290-1296, 1992
[29]J. I. Erdos, “Recent Experiments on Hypersonic Combustion in an Expansion Tube Test Facility, In Combustion in High-Speed Flows edited by J. Buckmaster et al., pp.53-91. Kluwer Academic, 1994
[30]J. I. Erdos, “On the Bridge from Hypersonic Aeropropulsion Ground Test Data to Flight Performance, AIAA Paper 98-2494, 1998
[31]C.K. Yang, “Reflected Shock Tunnel Design, Master thesis, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan, 2010
[32]C.Y. Chen, “Reflected Shock Tunnel Calibration, Master thesis, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan, 2011
[33]R. C. Anderson, R. E. Trucco, L. F. Rubin, and D. M. Swain, “Visualization of Hydrogen Injection in a Scramjet by Simultaneous PLIF and Laser Holographic Imaging, Proc. 1992 NASA Langley Measurement Technology Conferences NASA CP 3161, 1992
[34]A. Ben-Yakar and R. K. Hanson, “Experimental Investigation of Flame Holding Capability of a transverse Hydrogen Jet in Supersonic Cross-flow, 27th International Symposium on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, 2173-2180, 1998
[35]T. F. Fric, “Structure in the Near Field of the Transverse Jet, Ph.d. Thesis, California Institute of Technology, 1990
[36]D. Papamoschou and D. G. Hubbard, “Visual Observations of Supersonic Transverse Jets, Experiments in Fluids, Vol. 14, pp. 469476, 1993
[37]L. A. Povinelli, “Aerodynamic Drag and Fuel Spreading Measurements in a Simulated Scramjet Combustion Module, NASA TN D-7674, 1974
[38]P. A. Jacobs, “Quasi-One-Dimensional Modeling of a Free-Piston Shock Tunnel, AIAA JOURNAL, Vol. 32, pp. 137145, 1994
[39]P. W. Huber, C. J. Schexnayder, and C.R. McClinton, “Criteria for Self Ignition of supersonic Hydrogen-Air Mixture, NASA Technical Paper 1457, 1979
[40]C. Y. Wen, H. Chen, and C. K. Yang, “Preliminary Design and Simulation of Reflected Shock Tunnel in Taiwan, 16th AIAA/DLR/DGLR International Space Planes and Hypersonic Systems and Technologies Conference, 2009
[41]H. Chen, “Two-Dimensional Simulation of Stripping Breakup o f a Water Droplet, AIAA Journal, Vol. 46, No. 5, pp. 1135-1143, 2008
[42]Y. S. Chen, UNIC-UNS User’s Manual, Engineering Sciences Inc., 2006
[43]Y. S. Chen, P. Liaw, H. M. Shang, and C. P. Chen, “Numerical Analysis of Complex Internal and External Viscous Flows with a Second Order Pressure Based Method, AIAA 24th Fluid Dynamics Conference, 1993
[44]S. Gordon, B. J. McBride, “Computer Program for Calculation of Complex Chemical Equilibrium Compositions and Applications I. Analysis, NASA RP-1311,1994
[45]B. J. McBride, S. Gordon, “Computer Program for Calculation of Complex Chemical Equilibrium Compositions and Applications II. Users Manual and Program Description, NASA RP-1311,1996
[46]K. M. Shyue, “A Fluid-Mixture Type algorithm for Barotropic Twofluid Flow Problems, Journal of Computation Physics. Vol. 200, pp. 718-748, 2004
[47]H. Chen, S. M. Liang, “Flow visualization of Shock/Water Column Interactions, Shock Wave, Vol. 17, pp. 309-321, 2008
[48]H. Olivier and H. Grönig, “The Aachen Shock Tunnel TH2, http://www.swl.rwth-aachen.de,Website of The Shock Wave Laboratory, RWTH Aachen University
[49]A. G. Gaydon, L. R. Hurle, “The Shock Tube in High Temperature Chemical Physics, Reinhold Publishing Corporation, 1963
[50]G. A.Bird, “A Note on combustion Driven Shock Tube, AGARD Report, No. 146, 1957
[51]H. Chen, H. Feng and H. Yu, “Double detonation Drivers for a Shock Tube/Tunnel, Science in China Series G: Physics Mechanics and Astronomy, Vol. 47, pp. 502-512, 2004
[52]Z.L. Jiang, K. Takayama and Y.S. Chen, “Numerical Simulation of Detonation in Converging Chamber, JSME International Journal, Vol. 40, 1997, p. 442
[53]M. Lenaetz, B. Wang and H. Grönig, “Development of a Detonation Driver for a Shock Tunnel, Shock Waves, Proceedings of the 20th International Symposium on Shock Waves, pp. 153-158, 1996
[54]D. H. Edwards, G. O. Thomas and M. A. Nettleton, “The Diffraction of Planar Detonation Wave at an Abrupt Area Change, Journal of Aeronautical Scienes, Vol. 25, pp.73-85, 1958
[55]M. Kuznetsov, V, Alekseev, I. Matsukov and S. Dorofeev, “DDT in a Smooth Tube Filled With a Hydrogen-Oxygen Mixture, Shock Waves, Vol. 14, pp. 205-215, 2005
[56]A.I Gavrikov, A.A Efimenko and S.B Dorofeev, “A model for detonation cell size prediction from chemical kinetics, Combust. Flame, Vol. 120, pp. 19-33, 2000
[57]G. Ben-Dor, Ozerlgra, T. Elperin, “Hand book of shock wave, Academic Press published, Vol. 3, 2000,
[58]D. L. Schultz, T. V. Jones, “Heat Transfer Measurements in Short Duration Facilities, AGARD Report 165, 1973
[59]G. S. Settles, “Schlieren and Shadowgraph Techniques, Springer Publication, 2001
[60]M. R. Gruber, A. S. Nejad, “Compressibility effects in supersonic transverse injection flow fields, Physics of Fluid, Vol. 9, pp. 1448-1461, 1997
[61]D. Papamoschou and A. Roshko, “The Compressible Turbulent Shear Layer : An Experiment Study, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol 197, pp. 153-177, 1 988
[62]Y. You, H. Ludeke and K. Hannemann, “On the Flow Physics of a Low Momentum Flux Ratio Jet in a Supersonic Turbulent Crossflow, A Letters Journal Exploring the Frontiers of Physics, Vol. 97, 2012

註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top