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研究生:孫志成
研究生(外文):Chih-ChengSun
論文名稱:應用時頻分析法於全球導航衛星系統微弱訊號與干擾訊號之研究
論文名稱(外文):Time-Frequency Analyses for Global Navigation Satellite System Low Received Power Signals and Interference Issues
指導教授:詹劭勳
指導教授(外文):Shau-Shiun Jan
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:航空太空工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:英文
論文頁數:135
中文關鍵詞:全球導航衛星系統干擾訊號時頻分析
外文關鍵詞:GNSSInterferenceTime-Frequency Analysis
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近年來,數以百萬的人每天使用全球導航衛星系統來提供位置、速度與時間的服務。同時,正在發展中或已發展完成的增強系統與區域性導航衛星系統更進而修正了全球導航衛星系統在系統設計上或訊號傳送時所造成的誤差,大幅提升了全球導航衛星系統的使用效能。然而,全球導航衛星系統訊號的低接收功率,造成地面民用使用者依然面臨微弱衛星訊號與射頻干擾訊號等問題。有鑑於此,本論文將透過時頻分析法進行全球導航衛星系統訊號的研究,發展並應用於微弱衛星訊號與干擾訊號的議題。
時頻分析法可以適用頻譜特性會隨時間改變的非穩態訊號,而本論文採用基於傅立葉正弦頻譜的時頻分析法來分析全球導航衛星系統訊號,此方法透過一組快速擴散型濾波器來移除數據串所隱含的趨勢線,與傅立葉正弦頻譜產生器、修正型Gabor轉換式以及Hilbert轉換式來得時頻圖,此法的最大優點就是能夠產生與真實訊號誤差較小的時頻圖,本論文透過實驗來分析目前較常見的時頻法,如短時距傅立葉轉換、Gabor轉換與Winger-Ville分布法,針對同一組非穩態訊號所獲得的時頻分佈圖在時間、頻率上的解析能力、運算時間與微弱訊號的定位能力進行效能評估。結果顯示,傅立葉正弦時頻法相較於其他時頻分析法能夠更準確的呈現真實的訊號時頻圖。因此,本論文採用傅立葉正弦時頻法來進行全球導航衛星系統微弱衛星訊號與干擾訊號的研究。
針對微弱衛星訊號的議題,本論文利用傅立葉正弦時頻法設計出一衛星訊號存在認證機制來判定所擷取到的微弱衛星訊號是否存在,進一步提升微弱衛星訊號擷取的效率。此衛星訊號存在認證機制並不需額外改變接收機衛星訊號擷取與追蹤演算法,透過衛星訊號擷取迴路所擷取到的微弱衛星的電碼與都卜勒頻移資訊,並基於衛星所發送的訊號結構特性,產生移除電碼效應後的接收訊號時頻圖,分析該時頻圖上是否存在正確的載波資訊來判定衛星存在與否。本論文同時實際接收微弱衛星訊號來進行此衛星訊號存在認證機制的效能分析來證明其有效性。
而在射頻干擾訊號議題上,本論文利用傅立葉正弦時頻法研究並發展出一全球導航衛星系統干擾訊號的偵測與排除系統,並應用至一般使用者所使用之低成本全球導航衛星定位系統接收器上,降低一般使用者對於干擾訊號的影響與風險,而此機制主要利用全球導航衛星系統訊號頻譜隱藏於自然雜訊下的特性,直接分析接收到衛星訊號時頻圖來偵測是否存在著干擾訊號,同時估算該干擾訊號的時間與頻率資訊來設計一適當的凹口濾波器來進行干擾訊號的排除。本論文同時針對一組包含射頻干擾訊號的實際衛星訊號來進行此干擾訊號的偵測與排除系統的效能分析,結果顯示其擷取到的衛星訊號雜訊比在通過此機制後有所提升。
最後,考量到未來民航機場將實施基於全球導航衛星系統技術的通訊、導航、監視與飛航管理,本論文實際架設一套低成本與即時的全球導航衛星系統訊號干擾系統於高雄小港國際機場,了解機場周遭的射頻干擾的情形,並分析長期監測下所觀測到的資料,總結出機場周遭干擾訊號的統計特性。本論文同時透過傅立葉正弦時頻法分析干擾訊號於時頻圖上的時間頻率分佈特徵,並歸納出干擾訊號的種類與型態,判定是否屬於惡意的人為干擾,而該干擾訊號是否會對於接收機訊號處理或導航定位服務造成影響亦在本研究中完整的呈現。此結果能有效的提供干擾資訊作為機場周遭干擾源定位與排除的依據,同時提供未來實施通訊、導航、監視與飛航管理前的機場環境評估參考。

Nowadays, more than 600 millions of people worldwide rely on the satellite navigation to deliver the Position, Velocity, and Time (PVT) information. Meanwhile, with the developing augmentation system or regional satellite systems, the performance of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) for civil users is extremely improved especially on the error budget from system characteristics. However, unpredictable factors on the ground user environment, such as the low received power signal, or the radio interferences, strongly degrade the performance of GNSS receivers. For the reason, this dissertation proposes solutions of the low received power signal and interference issues via time-frequency analyses.
Time-frequency analysis is chosen because it can characterize signals whose spectral characteristics changes with time. In this dissertation, the time-frequency method based on the Fourier sine spectrum is used to analyze the GNSS signals. This method implements a class of fast and diffusive filter to serve as the trend removal tool, and the Fourier sine spectrum, the modified Gabor transform and the Hilbert transform accomplish the Fourier sine spectrogram. It is capable to represent the information on a spectrogram with small error. In this dissertation, several experiments are conducted to evaluate performance of the current available time-frequency tools, such as the short-time Fourier transform, the Gabor transform, and the Winger-Ville distribution. The performance is probed based on the criteria of the time/frequency resolutions, the computation time, and the capability of the weak signal localization. The experiment results show the effectiveness of the Fourier sine spectrogram in representing the detail information in the resulting spectrogram. Finally, this dissertation implements the Fourier sine spectrogram as a time-frequency tool to analyze the GNSS low received power signals and radio frequency interference issues.
As for the low received power GNSS signal issue, a Signal Existence Verification (SEV) process is proposed to detect and subsequently verify the existence of the acquired low received power GPS signal. The SEV scheme is developed based on the Fourier sine based time-frequency representation. This scheme serves as an additional loop for GNSS receiver without changing the original signal processing algorithms, such as the acquisition loop and tracking loop architectures. The SEV receives the satellite code delay phase and Doppler frequency information from the acquisition loop, and subsequently remove the code effect accordingly. The Fourier sine spectrogram of the codeless signal is generated to capture the characteristic of GNSS carrier signal around the corresponding Doppler frequency. In this dissertation, the live low received GNSS signal is collected to present the effectiveness of the SEV scheme.
On the other hand, an interference detection and excision scheme based on the Fourier sine spectrogram is proposed to deal with the GNSS interference issue as well. This detection and excision scheme is designed in accordance with the characteristics of GNSS signal whose signal power is spread below the ambient noise floor. Accordingly, the interference could be detected directly from the spectrogram of the received GNSS signal. Once any interference is detected on the resulting spectrogram, its time-frequency components will be localized in the interference detection stage. An Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) notch filter is implemented in the interference excision stage to further excise the interference source. In this dissertation, several simulations and experiments are conducted to validate the effectiveness of the proposed SEV and the interference detection and excision schemes. The effectiveness of the interference detection and excision scheme is investigated based on the criterion of the estimated signal-to-noise ratio in GNSS signal processing.
Considering the Communications, Navigation, Surveillance/Air Traffic Management Systems (CNS/ATMS), which is developed based on the GPS technique, will be online in Taipei flight information region. A low-cost real-time interference monitoring system is deployed at the Kaohsiung International Airport surroundings to probe the circumstance of radio frequency interference. The long-term observations are collected and investigated to conclude the statistic result of the interference. In addition, several specific interference events are analyzed via the Fourier sine spectrogram. The time-frequency characteristics of the observed interference could provide the information for interference classification, and further the intention reckoning. In this dissertation, the interference influence on the navigation service is also studied using a GNSS software defined receiver. Currently, the results show that observed interference events are not critical to cause the misleading information in positioning. Accordingly, this study could provide some useful information for localizing the interference source and further and mitigating the effects. Also it could be reference for evaluation of the airport surroundings prior to the CNS/ATMs implementation.

摘要 i
ABSTRACT iii
EXTENDED CHINESE ABSTRACT vi
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS xiii
CONTENTS xv
LIST OF TABLES xix
LIST OF FIGURES xx
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS xxiv
CHAPTER 1 1
INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Introduction to Global Navigation Satellite System 1
1.1.1 Introduction to Global Positioning System, United States 2
1.1.2 Introduction to GLObal NAvigation Satellite System, Russia 3
1.1.3 Introduction to Galileo Satellite Navigation System, Europe 4
1.1.4 Introduction to Compass Satellite Navigation System, China 5
1.2 Signal Quality Metric 7
1.2.1 Practical C/N0 Estimation Approaches 9
1.2.1.1 Variance Summing Method 10
1.2.1.2 Power Ratio Method 11
1.2.1.3 Correlation Power Peak Ratio and Correlation Power Peak to Mean Ratio 12
1.2.2 Signal Quality Metric under RF Interferences 14
1.3 Motivation and Objective 15
1.4 Summary of Contributions 17
1.5 Dissertation Organization 19
CHAPTER 2 21
TIME-FREQUENCY METHODOLOGIES 21
2.1 Theoretical Background of the Time-Frequency Methodologies 21
2.2 The Linear Time-Frequency Representations 23
2.2.1 Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT) 23
2.2.2 Gabor Transform 24
2.2.3 Wavelet Transform 25
2.3 The Energy Time-Frequency Distributions 25
2.4 The Time-Frequency Method based on Fourier Sine Spectrum 26
2.4.1 Iterative Filters using Gaussian Smoothing 27
2.4.2 Fourier Sine Spectrum 30
2.4.3 Approximated Gabor and Morlet Wavelet Transforms 32
2.4.4 Hilbert Transform 37
2.4.5 Procedure of Generating Fourier Sine Spectrogram 37
2.5 The Interfering Signal Localization based on Time-Frequency Analysis 39
2.6 Interim Summary 50
CHAPTER 3 51
SIGNAL EXISTENCE VERIFICATION (SEV) SCHEME FOR GPS LOW RECEIVED POWER SIGNAL DETECTION 51
3.1 GPS Low Received Power Issue 51
3.2 The Statistics of GPS Signal Acquisition Process 54
3.3 Signal Existence Verification (SEV) Scheme 62
3.4 Performance Evaluation of Signal Existence Verification (SEV) Scheme 66
3.5 Interim Summary 75
CHAPTER 4 76
GNSS INTERFERENCE DETECTION AND EXCISION USING TIME-FREQUENCY APPROACH 76
4.1 GNSS Interference Issue 76
4.2 GNSS Interference Detection and Excision 77
4.2.1 Interference Detection using Time-Frequency Representation 78
4.2.2 Interference Excision using Time-Frequency Representation 81
4.2.3 Architecture of Interference Detection and Excision Scheme based on Time-Frequency Representation 84
4.3 Performance Evaluation of the Proposed Interference Detection and Excision Scheme 85
4.4 Interim Summary 94
CHAPTER 5 95
INTERFERENCE CHARACTERISTICS FOR THE CIVIL AIRPORT ENVIRONMENT 95
5.1 The Interference Issue at the Civil Airport 95
5.2 The Interference Monitoring System at Airport 96
5.3 Interference Characteristics for the Civil Airport Environment 101
5.3.1 Interference Statistics at KHH, Taiwan 101
5.3.1.1 Daily AGC Readings over a Month 101
5.3.1.2 The Statistics of AGC Readings in Each Hour 104
5.3.2 Interference Characteristics on Time-Frequency Domain 106
5.3.3 The Interference Effects on the GNSS Signal Processing 109
5.4 Interim Summary 118
CHAPTER 6 119
CONCLUSIONS 119
6.1 Concluding Remarks 119
6.2 Recommendations for Future Work 121
REFERENCES 123
VITA 131
PUBLICATION LIST 132

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