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研究生:孫瑩軒
研究生(外文):Yin-HsuanSun
論文名稱:以人體舒適度觀點評估都市公園內外部溫熱環境之研究
論文名稱(外文):Evaluation of thermal environment in metro parks and ambient areas from the viewpoint of thermal comfort
指導教授:謝俊民謝俊民引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chun-Ming Hsieh
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:都市計劃學系碩博士班
學門:建築及都市規劃學門
學類:都市規劃學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:93
中文關鍵詞:微氣候都市公園風環境計算流體力學人體舒適度指標都市設計
外文關鍵詞:microclimatemetro parkwind environmentcomputational fluid dynamics(CFD)standard new effective temperature(SET*)urban design
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  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:3
近年來氣候變遷已成為全球面臨的重要問題,熱島效應(urban heat island)的問題日趨嚴重,而植栽種植是減緩都市溫度的方法之一,公園綠地系統在都市中扮演重要的角色。本研究選定台灣北回歸線以南熱帶氣候的台南公園為研究區域,其位於台灣台南市,在本市綠園道系統中佔有重要的地位,是都市中一塊範圍廣大的綠地,亦是使用者眾多的都市公園。為探討植栽對微氣候所造成之影響,針對公園內使用者行為及氣象站資料調查結果訂立夏季中午(6~9月,11-14時)為研究時段,進而探討在夏季一日中最熱時段,植栽對人行空間之溫熱環境影響情形。本研究以現場微氣候觀測方法:「固定式觀測法」及「移動式觀測法」,目的是為了瞭解實證地區之微氣候情形並驗證計算流體力學(computational fluid dynamics, CFD)之數值模擬結果,以此說明模擬的準確性。利用近10年常年氣象站資料輸入此模型計算,模擬公園及周邊地區植栽對都市溫熱環境之影響。本研究著眼於都市環境中的熱舒適性(thermal comfort)因子為議題,計算人體舒適度指標(standard new effective temperature , SET*)在公園及周邊地區,並以此結果與風速陰影四分類結果相互比較,試圖從過去研究討論之溫熱環境評估手法SET*中,提出簡易型評估方法,提供相關領域者如都市計劃、建築及景觀師在進行相關都市及景觀環境設計時,可透過氣象資料中的風速及陰影模擬便可對基地提出更確切的設計資訊,做為初步評估舒適度之用途,以降低設計後不舒適及阻擋風廊道的情況發生。研究結果可透過簡易型舒適度評估,指認出需要改善之區域,針對公園提出內部空間植栽修剪及移植改善建議及公園外部空間都市發展策略,鼓勵私人開發者配合都市公園周邊風廊道,在未來都市更新時除傳統規劃方法外,考量通風環境之觀點,針對建物座向、退縮及建蔽容積率移轉,將植栽降溫效果帶入下游都市空間,以創造更舒適的戶外溫熱環境。
Recent years, countries around the world have encountered a common critical problem, climate change, in which the urban heat island effect (UHI) particularly impacts on urban environment. Planting is one of the method of dropping urban temperature, and greenery or parks are an important part of city. Tainan Park, a large and bustling greenery of the parkway systems of Tainan City, a city of tropic climate, is chosen as the research area. According to the survey on park users and the meteorological data, the hottest time period is between 11 a.m. and 2:00 p.m., from June to September. Field measurement takes place during that period to study the effect planting takes on micro-climate as well as on the thermal environment of pedestrian areas. Both fixed measurement and movable measurement are used to collect data and to verify the Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulated model. Afterwards, the meteorological data between 2001 and 2010 is run in the model to output the influences parks and surrounding planting have on urban warmth. Concerning the comfort in urban environment, this research also calculate the Standard New Effective Temperature (SET*) of parks and ambient areas, the results of which varies with wind direction and shading. Subsequently, to point out areas that need improvement, it extracts a simplified evaluating method of thermal environment comfort from previous studies, which can be employed in future research as well. Improving strategies are then proposed, including: 1. Trim and transplant of planting inside the park. 2. Development of areas outside the park; encourage public authorities to promote the establishment of wind paths around parks. Moreover, they are advised to consider ventilation, building orientation, building coverage ratio (BCR), and floor area ratio (FAR) when planning urban renewal to create more comfortable environment by taking advantage of the cooling effect of planting.
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究目的 2
第三節 研究內容與流程 3
第二章 相關文獻回顧 5
第一節 都市氣候(Urban Climate) 5
第二節 計算流體力學CFD數值模擬 12
第三節 公園綠地在都市中扮演之角色 13
第四節 植栽綠化與都市微氣候 14
第五節 人體舒適度指標 20
第三章 研究設計 27
第一節 研究範圍 27
第二節 研究方法 31
第四章 數值模擬模型驗證 51
第一節 實測資料分析 51
第二節 CFD數值模擬結果 57
第三節 實測與數值模擬驗證 58
第五章 研究結果 61
第一節 人體舒適度指標計算 61
第二節 簡易型舒適度評估方法之運用 67
第三節 環境改善方案 72
第六章 結論與建議 79
第一節 結論 79
第二節 後續研究建議 81
參考文獻 83
附錄一 現場觀測工作表 89
附錄二、舒適度問卷 91
附錄三、實測天空率計算結果表 92
附錄四、WBGT-101實測逐時記錄結果 93
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(三)網站
3D立體熱流體模擬解析軟體「WindPerfect」,http://www.env-simulation.com/ch/index.html,環境技術模擬股份有限公司2010年12月26日。
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