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研究生:劉政岳
研究生(外文):Cheng-YuehLiu
論文名稱:基於特殊輔助演算法之即時低成本 MEMS INS/GPS 整合式陸用導航器之效能評估
論文名稱(外文):The Performance Evaluation of a Real-time Low-cost MEMS INS/GPS Integrated Navigator with Special Aiding Algorithms for Land Applications
指導教授:江凱偉江凱偉引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kai-Wei Chiang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:測量及空間資訊學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:測量工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:英文
論文頁數:85
中文關鍵詞:即時INS/GPS整合系統陸用導航器微機電慣性量測元件自動化ZUPT/ZIHR
外文關鍵詞:Real-time INS/GPS Integrated SystemNavigator for Land ApplicationMEMS IMUAuto ZUPT/ZIHR
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INS / GPS整合系統已成為導航科技研究領域中最熱門的研究領域之一。本篇論文旨在開發一個基於PC平台的即時低成本INS / GPS整合導航儀,並解決在開發過程中所遇到在即時導航系統特有的問題,例如時間同步、多任務程序同步、ZUPT自動化啟動條件偵測及輪速計資料擷取韌體設計。本論文中所提出的導航系統採用MEMS IMU作為核心慣性量測元件,以滿足成本低、體積小的要求,並使用擴展卡爾曼濾波(EKF)進行最優估計以提昇導航解的精度。在GPS信號被遮蔽時,系統將透過包含輪速計車速更新、ZUPT/ZIHR和NHC等特殊輔助演算法作自我修正機制。為了驗證所設計的系統,本論文所規劃的路測項目包含空曠場域、市中心道路及河畔快速道路等,而為了比較採用不同系統架構的精度差異,所規劃的系統架構包括了純慣導系統及INS/GPS整合系統,並將這二種系統架構與所有特殊輔助演算法交叉分析其定位定向之效能。實驗結果說明了三個重點:第一,系統在採用新創之busy-ZUPT/ZIHR後,於失去GPS輔助下,提供長達十五分鐘之純慣性模式動態定位定向解;第二,在高速動態環境中,藉由特殊輔助演算法輔助後的純慣導系統,亦可提供長達二十分鐘之純慣性模式動態定位定向解。第三,相較傳統INS/GPS整合系統,在採用所有特殊輔助演算法之機制輔助後,系統定位精度提高了74%。
INS/GPS integrated system has been one of the most popular methodologies in the research field of navigation technology. This dissertation aims at developing a real time low cost INS/GPS integrated navigator based on PC platform and resolving many intrinsic problems encountered in the development of real time system, like time synchronization, multithread concurrency control, automatic detection of ZUPT and the firmware design for odometer data acquisition. A MEMS IMU is applied in the system in order to meet the requirements of low cost and small size. The proposed system utilizes special aiding algorithms including odometer velocity update, auto ZUPT/ZIHR and NHC as a accurate update sources for extended Kalman Filter (EKF) to improve the accuracy of navigation solutions during GPS signal blockages. In the end, to evaluate the performance of the proposed system with developed special aiding algorithms, various field tests which include one open field, roads in downtown and loads rear a river bank are conducted and cross analyzed in two operation modes : pure INS mode and INS/GPS integration mode. Preliminarily, there are three significant experiment results presented in this study. Firstly, the proposed system with a novel busy-ZUPT/ZIHR is capable of providing a stable performance which operates kinematically in pure INS mode by 15 minutes. In the other field test of high speed motion, the proposed system with the special aiding algorithms can provide a stable performance which operates kinematic ally in pure INS mode by 20 minutes. Finally, the INS/GPS integrated solutions with a commercial grade GPS receiver are improved by 74% in position when special aiding algorithms are all applied.
Index
中文摘要……………………………………………………………………………….………….I
Abstract…………………………………………………………………………………..….…….II
Acknowledgement………………………………………………………………….….……….III
Index……………………………………………………………………………………..….…….IV
List of Tables……………………………………………….…………..…………..……………VI
List of Figures…………………...…………………………………………...…………………VII
Chapter 1. Introduction 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Objective 3
Chapter 2. Fundamental of INS/GPS Integrated System 5
2.1 Coordinate System 5
2.1.1 Inertial Frame( i-frame ) 5
2.1.2 Earth-Centered-Earth-Fixed Frame ( e-frame ) 5
2.1.3 Navigation Frame ( n-frame ) 6
2.1.4 Body Frame ( b-frame ) 7
2.1.5 Coordinate Frame Transformations 7
2.2 Terrestrial INS mechanization 9
2.2.1 Navigation Equations 9
2.2.2 Sensor Error Compensation 10
2.2.3 Attitude Integration 11
2.2.4 Velocity and Position Integration 12
2.3 Global Positioning System 13
2.3.1 Introduction to GPS 14
2.3.2 Positioning Error of GPS 14
2.3.3 GPS Measurement Model 16
Chapter 3. Error Control of INS 18
3.1 Stochastic Dynamics and Control 18
3.1.1 Continuous Time Stochastic Dynamic System 19
3.1.2 Discrete Time Stochastic Dynamic System 20
3.1.3 Random Processes: 20
3.2 Kalman Filter 22
3.2.1 Mathematical Model of Standard KF 22
3.2.2 LKF and EKF 24
3.2.3 EKF for INS Error Control 27
3.3 Vehicle Frame Aiding 32
3.3.1 Non-holonomic Constraint 32
3.3.2 ZUPT/ZIHR 34
3.3.3 Odometer Velocity Update 36
Chapter 4. Real-time Integration 38
4.1 Hardware Configuration 38
4.2 Software Configuration 40
4.2.1 Kernel Computation Module 41
4.2.2 Multithread Programming for Multiple Sensor Data Acquisition 42
4.2.3 Time Synchronization of Sensor Data 43
4.2.4 Automatic Initiation of ZUPT/ZIHR and NHC 46
4.2.5 Odometer Data Acquisition 48
Chapter 5. Experiments and Results 50
5.1 Experiment 50
5.1.1 Static Test for Pure INS Aided by ZUPT 52
5.1.2 Static Test for Pure INS Aided by ZUPT/ZIHR 54
5.1.3 Pure INS Aided by busy-ZUPT/ZIHR in an Open Land 56
5.1.4 Pure INS Aided by NHC in an Open Land 60
5.1.5 Synthetic Analysis excluding Odometer Aiding 63
5.1.6 Synthesis Analysis Including Odometer Near a River Bank. 70
Chapter 6. Conclusion 81
6-1 Summary 81
6-2 Recommendations 82
Reference 83


Reference
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