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研究生:王彬權
研究生(外文):Ping-ChuanWang
論文名稱:可攜式全景影像測繪系統之系統率定
論文名稱(外文):System Calibration of a Portable Panoramic Image Mapping System (PPIMS)
指導教授:曾義星曾義星引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yi-Hsing Tseng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:測量及空間資訊學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:測量工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:80
中文關鍵詞:移動式測繪系統全景影像系統率定近景攝影測量直接地理定位
外文關鍵詞:Mobile Mapping Systempanoramic imagesystem calibrationclose-range photogrammetrygeo-referencing
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移動式測圖系統(Mobile Mapping Systems, MMS)的發展對於快速獲取準確的三維空間資訊有相當重要性,其中以車載式MMS(測量車)最為成熟且已有商業化系統。本研究基於MMS概念,開發個人可攜式全景測圖系統(Portable Panoramic Image Mapping System, PPIMS)。研究動機是基於測量車可能面臨的問題,包括電力供應的穩定性、系統裝置前置作業的困難、影像感測器之精度與導航系統之穩定性、以及測量車本身之體積與重量對於災區與山區等不易到達之處的限制等,簡單方便且可攜帶至車輛無法到達的地區,是PPIMS發展之目標。PPIMS是以六邊形平台裝載六部輕型數位單眼相機與手持式長桿所建立,相機裝置考量影像重疊位置使其達到全景之測繪能力。PPIMS可以說是一種GPS輔助之近景攝影測量系統,平台中心裝置e-GPS定位系統(Electronic Global Positioning System),其為國土測繪中心以架構虛擬站(Virtual Reference Station, VRS)的解算原理,使本平台能達到快速定位。整體平台系統少於2.5公斤,即符合個人可攜式測繪之目的。
移動式測繪系統之定位能力乃建立於良好的系統率定,相對於測量車而言,PPIMS未裝載定向系統INS(Inertial Navigation System),系統率定即是決定GPS天線中心(平台中心)與相機之相對向量(Offset Vector)與相對方位(Orientation) 。本研究探討現行測量車之室外環場率定法,稱為一階段(One-step)系統率定,發現室外環場率定場不易建置,常因無適合的環場場景而造成連結點位之分布不足而形成不良的率定成果,因為先採用室內環場率定場,率定相機之相對幾何關係,再使用簡易的室外率定場率定GPS天線中心與相機組之幾何關係,稱為兩階段(Two-step)系統率定。本研究開發空三平差演算法以利第二階段的運算,達到系統率定之解算。最後以兩率定法之系統率定值進行地理定位驗證,評估PPIMS的測繪能力。系統率定的成果在相對方位之三方向量級可達1cm以下,相對向量之三軸誤差約在1~2cm,地理定位在三維方向能達到5cm(RMS)之定位精度,驗證所提出Two-step系統率定之成效。

The development of Mobile Mapping System (MMS) is important for rapid acquisition of 3D spatial information. Nowadays, the Vehicle MMS (VMMS) is one of the system that had well developed and commercialized. This paper proposes a Portable Panoramic Image Mapping System (PPIMS), which is based on MMS. The motivation of this research is concerned about that VMMS will possibility face some problems. Including the stability of electric supply, the difficult preprocess of the system, the precision of image sensors and navigation system, and the limit to get into the mountain and disaster area for the reason of heavy weight and size of VMMS, etc. For easy and portable way to reach to the region which Vehicle can’t do is our research purpose. The PPIMS is composed of six circularly arranged cameras and a GPS antenna fixed on a hexagon platform to capture panoramic images with positions. It is in fact a GPS assisted close-range photogrammetric system. The equipped GPS receiver should have the function of e-GPS (Electronic Global Positioning System), which is based on a Virtual Reference Station (VRS) provided by the National Land Surveying and Mapping Center, Taiwan. Therefore, the platform position can be determined instantaneity for each image set. The advantage of the PPIMS is that the total weight of the platform, cameras and the GPS antenna is less than 2.5 kg, so that it can be carried by a person for data collection.
The ability for MMS can be applied for geo-referenced mapping, it must go through a well system calibration .Compared to the VMMS, PPIMS is not loaded the Inertial Navigation System (INS).So the system calibration is to decide the Offset Vector and Orientation between the camera set and the GPS antenna . The field calibration method of VMMS is adopted in this paper, we called it One-step calibration. But it is really difficult to find a qualified outdoor calibration field which can let every image cover enough number of well distributed control points, result in a bad calibration result. Therefore, we set up an indoor panoramic calibration field with a good distribution of control points to determine the relative geometry among cameras first, and followed by using a simple outdoor calibration field to calibrate the relationship between GPS center and cameras. We called that Two-step calibration. In order to solve system calibration, we developed a constrain-aerial triangulation adjustment for second step calculation. Finally, use the calibration value to test the quality of object point determination. The calibration results show that the Orientation in the three direction is in millimeter level of accuracy, the Offset Vector in the three axis is from 1 to 2 centimeter of accuracy, and the accuracy of direct geo-referencing is about 5 centimeter of 3D. It is ample to show achievements of the Two-step system calibration.

摘 要 i
Abstract ii
誌 謝 iv
目 錄 vi
表 目 錄 viii
圖 目 錄 ix
第一章 前言 1
1.1 研究背景與動機 1
1.2 研究目的 4
1.3 研究流程 7
1.4 論文架構 10
第二章 可攜式全景測繪系統 11
2.1 系統架構 11
2.1.1 系統平台 11
2.1.2 影像感測器 12
2.1.3 定位感測器 13
2.2坐標系統與轉換 15
2.2.1 測圖坐標系統(The Mapping Frame,M-frame) 16
2.2.2 相機坐標系統(The Camera Frame,C-frame) 19
2.2.3 載體坐標系統(The Body Frame,B-frame) 20
2.2.4 各坐標系統之轉換 21
2.3 PPIMS測繪原理 22
第三章 系統率定 25
3.1 相機率定 25
3.2一階段(One-step)系統率定法 29
3.2.1室外環場率定場觀測 29
3.2.2影像方位解算 30
3.2.3系統率定參數解算 30
3.3 兩階段Two-step系統率定法 33
3.3.1第一階段率定 33
3.3.2第二階段率定 34
第四章 實驗成果分析與討論 40
4.1實驗場說明 40
4.1.1 室外環場率定場 40
4.1.2 室內環場率定場 46
4.1.3 驗證場 47
4.2一階段(One-step)系統率定 49
4.2.1外業觀測 49
4.2.2空三平差成果 54
4.2.3系統率定成果 54
4.2.4 One-step系統率定成果分析 57
4.3兩階段(Two-step)系統率定 58
4.3.1第一階段率定成果 59
4.3.2第二階段率定成果 61
4.3.3 Two-step系統率定成果分析 62
4.4實測定位成果驗證 65
4.4.1外業觀測與方位解算 65
4.4.2應用率定參數之定位成果 68
4.4.3定位成果之綜合分析 69
第五章 結論與建議 73
5.1 結論 73
5.2 建議 74
參考文獻 75
附錄 78
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