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論文名稱(外文):Potentially toxic trace elements accumulating and hazard ranking in the outfall area of a desalination plant of Penghu Island
指導教授(外文):Cheng-Haw Lee
外文關鍵詞:Potentially toxic trace elementDesalination plantSeawaterSedimentBioaccumulationHazard ranking
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本研究以澎湖海水淡化廠為例,來評估海水淡化廠放流水對海洋環境所造成的衝擊,其潛在微量毒性元素之調查包含銅、鋅、鉛、鉮、鉻、鎘和汞。從研究中發現銅、鋅及砷之潛在微量毒性元素濃度可在海底沉積物中偵測出,其濃度會從海水淡化廠排放管的出水口處隨距離增加而逐漸遞減。經由海水淡化廠放流水水質偵測結果,顯示其放流水濃度遠低於放流水水質標準,但海水淡化廠之放流水可能增加海底沉積物之銅、鋅及鉮濃度,而鉻、鉛、鎘及汞可能不是從海水淡化廠所釋放出來的。存在於離岸50公尺處海洋生物之微量毒性元素濃度調查結果,顯示其生物體內之潛在微量毒性元素濃度包含銅、鋅、鉛、鉮、鉻、鎘和汞等,濃度會隨時間增加呈現隨機分佈,因而無法觀察出生物濃度累積作用。另外,海水的銅、鋅及鉮濃度於海平面下1、25及50公尺深有彼此正相關性,其說明濃度擴散具有相關性。且鉮濃度空間分佈趨勢中,可發現在海水淡化廠排放管的出水口處及離岸1000公尺至3000 公尺處其鉮濃度比週遭環境濃度低。毒性優先順序指標來推測潛在毒性污染物對環境的影響,指出其結果在海水中須先考量銅濃度(毒性優先順序指標=0.32),海底沉積物中需先考量砷濃度(毒性優先順序指標=0.51),若海水與海底沉積物綜合討論需先考量砷 (毒性優先順序指標=0.56),其次為鋅(毒性優先順序指標=0.54),此指標可作為未來優先改善之依據。
This study evaluated the environmental impact of seawater desalination effluent discharged into a water body by investigating potentially toxic trace elements in the outfall area of a desalination facility on the southeastern coast of Penghu Island (Taiwan). Trace element concentrations are analyzed using various samples (sediment, water and bivalves). Copper, zinc and arsenic were detected in sediment samples in the outfall area and decreased progressively as one moved away from this area. A contour plotting technique was applied to assess and visualize trace element pollution point sources (inputs) in the study area. Bivalve samples such as oysters and clams were collected 50 m from the desalination coastal area. Trace element concentrations in bivalves varied randomly. A clear increasing tendency over time (bioaccumulation) was not observed. Temporal trends of trace element concentrations are investigated by comparing biannual concentrations for a 2-year period (2006–2007). Analytical results demonstrate that only As in seawater had an increasing trend after 2006. Further, more a hazard index (HI) is applied to assess the potential hazard of contaminants to the environment. If the priority is to improve water quality, focus should be placed on Cu (HI=0.32). On the other hand, if the priority is sediment quality, the As concentration (HI=0.51) should be reduced. If the two HIs (seawater and sediment) are considered together, As (HI=0.56) becomes the highest-ranking trace element, followed by Zn (HI=0.54).
中文摘要 Ⅰ
Abstract Ⅲ
謝誌 Ⅴ
目錄 Ⅵ
圖目錄 Ⅸ
表目錄 ⅩⅠ
符號 ⅩⅢ
第一章 前言 1-1
1.1、研究緣起 1-1
1.2、研究架構 1-4
1.3、研究目的 1-5
1.4、研究內容 1-5
第二章 文獻回顧 2-1
2.1、澎湖地區水源狀況 2-1
2.2、澎湖地區地質狀況 2-4
2.3、海水淡化處理程序 2-6
2.4、放流水成份 2-7
第三章 材料與方法 3-1
3.1、海水與海底沉積物之採樣位置 3-1
3.2、放流水之採樣位置 3-3
3.3、海底沉積物之採樣方式 3-5
3.4、海底沉積物之分析方式 3-5
3.5、生物體之採樣與分析 3-6
3.6、數值分析 3-7
3.7、毒性優先順序指標之評估方式 3-7
第四章 結果與討論 4-1
4.1、海底沉積物之濃度分佈 4-1
4.2、放流水之濃度分佈 4-8
4.3、生物體內之濃度分佈 4-12
4.4、時間分佈趨勢與其相關性 4-17
4.5、空間分佈趨勢 4-27
4.6、毒性優先順序指標 4-42
第五章 結論與建議 5-1
5.1、結論 5-1
5.2、建議 5-3
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