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研究生:薛宏毅
研究生(外文):Hong-YiSyue
論文名稱:藉由使用區塊大小及粗略的方向追蹤以快速選擇H.264幅內預測模式
論文名稱(外文):Fast Mode Decision for H.264 Intra Prediction by Using Block Size and Direction Tracing with Coarse Prediction
指導教授:賴源泰
指導教授(外文):Yen-Tai Lai
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:英文
論文頁數:65
中文關鍵詞:H.264幅內預測區塊大小
外文關鍵詞:H.264intra predictionblock size decision
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在以相同的影像品質的前提下,H.264/AVC 相較於MPEG-2及MPEG-4可以節省了大約60%與40%的位元率。所以近年來他被廣泛的運用在多媒體通訊及消費性電子產品上如數位電視、高畫質DVD、視訊電話等等。
H.264使用了RDO(碼率-失真最佳化)來決定編碼的模式才可以達到如此高的編碼效能,而為了在幅內預測中取得最佳的模式,編碼器必須去計算所有可能模式的RDO,並且選擇最小值的模式當作我們要的最佳模式;由於在H.264 4×4的區塊大小中總共有九種模式,16×16的區塊大小則有四種模式,每編碼一個巨區塊就必需重複作RDO的運算已取得最佳的模式,如果需要兼顧良好的影像品質及有效率的編碼,那麼RDO的運算會是一個很大的負擔。
為了解決這個問題,我們提出了預先決定區塊大小、粗略的方向追蹤、提前終止等三個方法,並透過參考軟體JM驗證演算法,接著使用Verilog硬體描述語言來實現其RTL之電路架構,再使用TSMC® 0.18μm製程以Synopsys®的Design Compiler作合成,最終完成可以減少整體編碼75%運算量以及運算速度可達到250 MHz。

H.264/AVC can achieve about 60% bit rate saving compared to MPEG-2, and about 40% bit rate saving over MPEG-4 with the same video quality. In recent years, H.264/AVC is widely used for multimedia communications and consumer electronics such as Digital TV, High Definition DVD, Camera Phone, and others.
To achieve high coding efficiency, H.264/AVC uses Lagrangian rate distortion optimization (RDO) technique to decide the coding mode. In order to choose the best coding mode for intra prediction, the encoder has to calculate the RDO of every possible mode and choose the mode having the minimum value. This process is repeatedly carried out for every possible mode in a macroblock. For each macro block, there are nine prediction modes in 4×4 luma block , and four modes 16×16 luma block. If the encode obtains both good quality and high efficiency, it requires large amounts of RDO calculations.
To address this issue, we propose block size decision, direction tracing with coarse prediction, and early termination. We verify the proposed algorithm through the reference software Joint Model and implement the RTL code by Verilog hardware description language. We synthesize the digital circuit by using Design Compiler of Synopsys with the TSMC 0.18μm CMOS μm technology. Finally, the proposed intra prediction algorithm can reduce 75% computational time and the low complexity hardware can work up to 250MHz.

CONTENTS

ABSTRACT
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF FIGURES

Chapter 1
Introduction 1
1.1 H.264/AVC Video Compression Standard 1
1.2 Motivation 3
1.3 Thesis Organization 4
Chapter 2
Basic Concepts of H.264/AVC 5
2.1 Overview of H.264/AVC 5
2.2 Intra Prediction for H.264/AVC 7
2.2.1 Intra 4×4 Luma Prediction Modes 7
2.2.2 Intra 16×16 Luma Prediction Modes 12
2.2.2 Intra 8×8 Chroma Prediction Modes 14
2.3 Basic Concept of Inter Prediction Mode 16
2.3.1 Variable Block Size Motion Estimation 17
2.3.2 Quarter-Sample-Accurate Motion Vector 18
2.3.3 Multiple Reference Frame 20
2.4 Deblocking Filter 20
2.5 The Other Features 21
2.5.1 Network Abstraction Layer (NAL) 21
2.5.2 Slice and Slice Groups 22
2.5.3 Inter Transform and Quantization 23
2.5.4 Entropy Coding 25
Chapter 3
Intra Prediction Algorithm 26
3.1 Conventional Intra Prediction Algorithm 26
3.2.1 The Edge Detection Algorithm[4] 28
3.2.2 Sub-sample for edge intensify[13] 30
3.3 Proposed Algorithm 34
3.3.1 Direction tracing with Coarse Prediction 34
3.3.2 Block Size Decision 43
3.3.3 Early Termination 45
Chapter 4
Experimental Results and Implementation 47
4.1 Experimental Platform 47
4.2 Measuring Criteria 48
4.2.1 Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio 48
4.2.2 Bit Rate 48
4.2.3 Speed Up 48
4.3 Experimental Results 49
4.4 Implementation 55
4.4.1 Hardware Architecture 55
4.4.2 Synthesis Results 58
4.4.2.1 Timing Report 58
4.4.2.2 Area Report 61
4.4.3 Comparisons 61

Chapter 5
Conclusion 63

References 64


[1]Wiegand, T.; Sullivan, G.J., “The H.264/AVC Video Coding Standard, IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, vol:24, pp.148-153, March 2007
[2]Y. C. Chen, W. G. Wu, “Design and Analysis of H.264 Intra-Prediction and Mode Decision Architecture Using Rate-Distortion Optimization, July 2006
[3]Detlev Marpe and Thomas Wiegand, Heinrich Hertz Institute (HHI),Gary J. Sullivan, Microsoft Corporation, “The H.264/MPEG4 Advanced Video Coding Standard and its Applications, IEEE Communications Magazine, vol:44, PP. 134-143, August 2006
[4]Feng Pan, Xiao Lin, Susanto Rahardja, Keng Pang Lim, Z. G. Li, Dajun Wu, and Si Wu, “Fast mode decision algorithm for intra-prediction in H.264/AVC video coding, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol., vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 813–822, Jul. 2005.
[5]Kalva, H., “The H.264 Video Coding Standard, Multimedia, IEEE, vol:13, PP.86-90, 2006
[6]I. E. G. Richardson, “H.264 and MPEG-4 Video Compression, UK: John Wiley & Sons, 2003.
[7]B. D. Liu, J. F. Yang, W.E Tsai, “Discrete Cross Difference Mode Detection for Fast H.264 Intra Prediction, NCKU Tainan, Taiwan, ROC, July 2007
[8]Wiegand, T.; Sullivan, G.J.; Bjontegaard, G.; Luthra, A., “Overview of the H.264/AVC Video Coding Standard, IEEE Transaction on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol:13, PP560-576, July 2003
[9]Y. T. Lai, H. C. Lin, “A Fast Direction Detection Algorithm for H.264 Intra Prediction, NCKU Tainan, Taiwan, ROC, July 2010
[10]Vetro, A.; Wiegand, T.; Sullivan, G.J., “Overview of the Stereo and Multiview Video Coding Extensions of the H.264/MPEG-4 AVC Standard, Proceedings of the IEEE
vol:99, NO. 4 , PP.626-642,
[11]Bharanitharan, K.; Bin-Da Liu; Jar-Ferr Yang; Wen-Chih Tsai, “A Low Complexity Detection of Discrete Cross Differences for Fast H.264/AVC Intra Prediction, IEEE Transaction on Multimedia, vol:10, No.7 , PP.1250-1260, November 2008
[12]Ping Wang • Hua Huang • Zheng Tan, “A fast two-step block type decision algorithm for intra prediction in H.264/AVC high profile, Springer Science+Business Media,
LLC, Published online:12, May 2011
[13]J. C. Wang, J. F. Wang, J. F. Yang, and J. T. Chen, “A fast mode decision algorithm and its VLSI design for H.264/AVC intra-prediction, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol., vol. 17, no. 10, pp. 1414–1422, Oct. 2007.
[14]Yi-Hsin Huang; Tao-Sheng Ou; Chen, H.H., “Fast Decision of Block Size, Prediction Mode, and Intra Block for H.264 Intra Prediction, IEEE Transaction on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol:20, NO.8, PP.1122-1132, August 2010
[15]Yu,A.C.W.; Martin, G.R.; Heechan Park, “Fast Inter-Mode Selection in the H.264/AVC Standard Using a Hierarchical Decision Process, IEEE Transaction on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol:18, NO.2, PP.186-195, Frequency 2008
[16]Y. T. Lai, C. W. Huang, “A Parallel Processing Deblocking Filter in H.264/AVC, NCKU Tainan, Taiwan, ROC, July 2011
[17]Joint Video Team, H.264/AVC Reference Software JM17.1: http://iphome.hhi.de/suehring/tml/download/

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