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研究生:杜俊緯
研究生(外文):Chun-WeiTu
論文名稱:應用在肌酸酐感測之阻抗式讀取電路
論文名稱(外文):Impedance Readout Circuit for Creatinine Sensing
指導教授:羅錦興羅錦興引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ching-Hsing Luo
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:英文
論文頁數:72
中文關鍵詞:阻抗式讀取電路電容切換生化感測器
外文關鍵詞:Impedance readout circuitswitch capacitorbiosensor
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  • 下載下載:11
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生化感測器是由生化接收器及傳感器所組成,生化接收器利用特定的生物分子捕捉待測分析物,而傳感器轉譯所捕捉的待測分析物成為可量測的信號,隨著CMOS製程的演進,於矽晶片上製作積體化的傳感器成為必要發展。本論文提出了針對可攜式與可拋棄式應用的簡易讀取電路,完整的功能必須盡可能完成在單一晶片上以達到取代醫院或實驗室傳統大型裝置的目的,專題所設計的系統萃取及數位化生化感測器的導納,亦即阻抗的倒數,包含實部與虛部部分以特徵化其特性。和傳統的讀取電路相比較,所提出的改良式讀取電路其提高了製程容忍度,降低近十倍的增益誤差,所帶來的好處是毋須設計校正電路以解決製程飄移所造成錯誤的阻抗偵測,並且晶片與晶片間的阻抗結果差異可大幅縮減以提高偵測結果的可信度。晶片以台積電CMOS 0.18微米製程實現,在1.8伏特電源供應下消耗功率為36微瓦、僅佔據0.0778平方公釐的核心面積,輸出為9位元的二補數數位訊號,其對應0.9861及0.9998的振幅與相位轉換線性度。
Biosensors consist of a bio receptor and a transducer. A bio receptor captures the analytes of interest with its specific biomolecules, and a transducer translates the captured analytes into measureable signals. With the progress of CMOS process, there is a need to build an integrated transducer onto a silicon chip. In this thesis, compact readout circuit is proposed in applications of portable and disposable devices. Thus, functions must be implemented as complete as possible to replace the bulky instruments which lie in hospital or laboratory. The designed system extracts and digitizes the real and imaginary portion of admittance, the reciprocal of impedance, from biosensors to characterize its behaviors. Compared to traditional readout circuits, our proposed readout circuits enhance process tolerance, and reduce the gain error approximately 10 times lower than previous works. The benefits are more accurate impedance results over corner variations without any calibration unit, and lower difference of impedance value from chip to chip to acquire a more reliable results of detection. Fabricated in TSMC 0.18-um CMOS process, the chip consumes 36uW of power at 1.8V supply, and occupies only 0.0778 mm2 of core area. The 9-bit 2’s complement digital outputs correspond respectively to 0.98609 and 0.9998 of amplitude and phase conversion linearity.
Abstract II
Acknowledgement IV
List of Figures IX
List of Tables XII
Chapter 1. Introduction 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Electrochemical Biosensors 2
1.3 Related Work 3
1.4 Disposition 4
1.5 Abbreviations 4
Chapter 2. Literature Review 6
2.1 Introduction to Impedance Biosensors 6
2.1.1 Label-Based Operation 7
2.1.2 Label-Free Operation 8
2.1.3 Performance of Impedance Biosensors 9
2.2 Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) 11
2.2.1 Complex Variables 11
2.2.2 Transfer Function of Impedance Biosensor 13
2.2.3 FRA-Based EIS Method 15
2.3 The Lock-In IDC 16
2.4 Conventional FRA-Based Readout Circuits 18
Chapter 3. Materials and Methods 20
3.1 Operation of Proposed ISRC 20
3.2 Specification Estimation 23
3.2.1 Specify Capacitance in SCMI 24
3.2.2 Specify Specification for Opamp 25
3.3 Circuit Implementation 28
3.3.1 Pass Transistors and Transmission Gates 28
3.3.2 Operational Amplifier 31
3.3.3 Opamp-Based Comparator 33
3.3.4 Low-Voltage & Low-Power Bandgap Reference 35
3.3.5 Control Block & DAC Switches 38
3.3.6 Non-overlapping Clock Generator 39
3.3.7 Bidirectional Counter 41
3.3.8 2’s Complement Subrtactor 42
Chapter 4. Results and Discussions 45
4.1 Pre-Simulation 45
4.1.1 Operation of Amplitude and Phase Conversion 46
4.1.2 Specifications of ISRC 48
4.2 Post-Simulation 50
4.2.1 Specifications of ISRC 51
4.3 Layout 54
4.3.1 Bandgap Reference 55
4.3.2 SC-Multiplying Integrator 55
4.3.3 Control Block & DAC Switch 56
4.3.4 Clock Generator 56
4.3.5 Up/Down Counter 57
4.3.6 2’s-Compliment Subtractor 57
4.3.7 Pin Arrangement 58
4.4 Measurement Environment and Test Board 59
4.4.1 Power Supply 60
4.4.2 Voltage Reference 61
4.4.3 Clock 61
4.4.4 Test Board 62
4.5 Measured Results 63
Chapter 5. Summary 67
5.1 Conclusions 67
5.2 Future Works 68
References 69
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