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研究生:陳力豪
研究生(外文):Li-HaoChen
論文名稱:風力發電場規劃與發電機葉片設計在地理限制下之整合研究
論文名稱(外文):Wind Farm Optimization with Turbine Blade Design Considering Geographical Constraints
指導教授:詹魁元
指導教授(外文):Kuei-Yuan Chan
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:機械工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:90
中文關鍵詞:風力發電風力發電場規劃風力發電機葉片設計風力葉片空氣動力學最佳化設計
外文關鍵詞:Wind energyWind farmWind turbine blade designAerodynamicsOptimization design
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  • 被引用被引用:1
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在科技不斷進步以及能源消耗量持續提升的今日,利用更永續的方式來產生電力已成為一大趨勢,其中風力發電為最具潛力的方法之一。良好的風力發電轉換效率必須搭配完善的風力發電場規劃,其中包含配電控制系統整合、風場規劃、塔架設計、風力葉片結構設計、及空氣動力性能評估等。在以往文獻中,我們發現大部分學者只針對個別領域進行研究,鮮少有整合不同領域進行風場設計並探討各領域間相互之影響。本研究欲提出一套整合型風力發電場規劃與發電機葉片設計,並與現行台灣實際風力發電場案例作比較,探討在各式風力發電機選擇下對於整體風場之影響,其中葉片設計需在結構不發生破壞下有良好的空氣動力性能,以提升發電效率。

考量風力發電場規劃與風力葉片設計的問題為一整合型的問題,此類型的問題為存在大量變數、大量的拘束條件、複雜的數學運算、及使用工程分析軟體的複雜系統設計問題。針對複雜系統之設計方法我們採用解析目標傳遞法(Analytical Target Cascading, ATC),此方法是利用系統化的拆解方式,將複雜系統拆解成較小的子系統,降低了求解上的困難度,在求解的過程中透過子系統間的溝通協調,使整體系統可以達到與未拆解前系統相同的最佳值。倘若拆解後的子系統因設計空間太過複雜,使演算法無法收斂,此時子系統的設計點可能落在可行解或非可行解空間之不恰當區域,導致最終結果不理想,為降低未收斂子系統對整體結果的影響,本研究利用子系統現有設計點,依梯度方向搜尋較佳的設計點,並觀察修正後整體系統之收斂情形。

本論文最後展示風力發電場規劃與葉片設計之整合型範例,並以此範例探討改良後之解析目標傳遞法收斂情形,同時本研究亦考量風場地理位置上的限制,針對地形限制及風速/風向之地理特性進行更完善的規劃。

關鍵字:風力發電,風力發電場規劃,風力發電機葉片設計,風力葉片空氣動力學,最佳化設計
The increase of energy consumption in all sectors calls for more sustainable sources of energy. In the pursue of green energy, wind turbines have the highest potential and are also the most implemented worldwid. Design and planning of wind energy require the integration of wind farm location and layout, wind turbine frame design, the aerodynamics of wind turbine blades, among many other cost and engineering considerations. In the literature, most researchers consider only one aspect of the wind farm design while ignoring the rest. Since these disciplines are deeply coupled in nature, in this research we propose an integrated framework of both wind farm layout optimization and turbine blade design to improve the overall energy transformation efficiency while considering the aerodynamics of turbine blades and the wake effects of wind turbine placement.
The integrated wind farm and turbine blade design has a large number of variables, numerous constrains, and time-consuming engineering computer simulations. In this thesis, this complex problem is decomposed as a multi-level system and then solved using Analytical target cascading (ATC). By systematic coordination, ATC should provide comparable results as the all-in-one problem. However, the optimization processes of subproblems in ATC might not always converge to the global optimum in practice. These unconverged subsystems will provide inappropriate responses in ATC that might lead to longer simulation time or even erroneous outcomes. To alleviate the impacts of unconverged subsystems, we proposed a modification to ATC such that the entire ATC solution will not be baffled by inappropriate responses. The proposed ATC modification is tested in a mathematical example and also implemented in the wind farm optimization problem. Site-specific geographical constraints and the local wind characteristics are both considered in the wind farm planning. The result is a more rigorous all-around wind energy solution that fits local geographical characteristics.
Keywords:Wind energy;Wind farm;Wind turbine blade design;Aerodynamics;Optimization design

書名頁 i
論文口試委員審定書 ii
中文摘要 iii
英文摘要 iv
誌謝 v
目錄 vi
表目錄 ix
圖目錄 x
符號說明 xiii
第一章緒論 1
1.1前言 1
1.2研究動機與目的 3
1.3本文架構 3
第二章研究背景與文獻回顧 5
2.1風力發電機 5
2.2相關文獻回顧 7
2.3風力葉片空氣動力學 9
2.3.1一維動量理論(One Dimensional Momentum Theory) 9
2.3.2一維動量理論(考量旋轉尾流) 13
2.3.3葉片元素理論(Blade Element Theory) 14
2.3.4葉片元素動量理論(Blade Element Moment Theory) 16
2.4尾流模型(Wake Model) 18
第三章研究方法 20
3.1複雜系統整合與設計 20
3.1.1解析目標傳遞法 20
3.1.2多層系統架構與演算流程 21
3.1.3解析目標傳遞法數學模型 24
3.1.4解析目標傳遞法策略發展 27
3.2待解決之困難 39
3.3子系統最佳化之修正策略 40
3.3.1未收斂值為可行解 41
3.3.2未收斂值為非可行解 42
3.3.3設計策略整合 43
3.4數學範例 45
3.4.1變形幾何規劃數學範例 45
第四章風力發電場配置與葉片設計 51
4.1問題描述與系統簡介 51
4.1.1地理分析次系統 52
4.1.2葉片外型次系統 55
4.1.3葉片空氣動力學次系統 56
4.1.4葉片結構力學次系統 62
4.1.5子系統整合與最佳化模型 64
4.2固定風力發電機數目之最佳規劃 66
4.3未定風力發電機數目之最佳規劃 74
4.4結果與討論 77
第五章台灣實際風力發電場案例78
第六章研究貢獻與未來方向 85
6.1研究貢獻 85
6.2未來研究方向與建議 86
參考文獻 87

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