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研究生:俞泰華
研究生(外文):Tai-HuaYu
論文名稱:行人與機車騎士下肢碰撞模擬及傷害評估
論文名稱(外文):Lower Limb Impact Simulation and Injury Assessment in Pedestrians and Scooter Riders
指導教授:黃才烱黃才烱引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tsai-Jiung Huang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:機械工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:207
中文關鍵詞:行人傷害下肢次系統機車碰撞意外事故行人下肢保護裝置田口品質方法
外文關鍵詞:Pedestrian injuryLower limb sub-systemScooter crash accidentProtective deviceTaguchi method
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台灣地區因地狹人稠,且人口大多集中於都會區,因此造就以具高機動性及節省成本的速克達機車(Scooter)作為主要交通工具之獨特交通文化,但也使得機車成為台灣地區肇事數量最多的車種。都會區道路行人密集度高,於道路上之活動空間常與機車重疊共用,造成行人與機車之意外事故頻繁,而行人與機車意外事故中,以機車輪胎與機車前方車體為最易與行人下肢碰觸,對行人下肢造成傷害之部位;此外,機車行駛於路面顛簸或濕滑的狀態下,容易發生自摔傾倒之情況,而傾倒過程可能會壓迫騎士下肢形成傷害。根據案例研究統計,於機車之交通意外事故中,以人體下肢為最容易受傷之部位,其常見之傷害型態為骨折、膝關節與足踝關節之肌腱或韌帶等軟組織損傷,雖致命率低,但復健所需時間冗長,且耗費大量醫療成本,因此對其嚴重性不可忽視。
汽車產業於人體傷害的研究發展行之有年,碰撞人偶無論在試驗方法、傷害評估與生物反應上皆已成熟,本研究以歐洲促進汽車安全委員會(European Enhanced Vehicle-Safety Committee; EEVC)所訂定出之次系統測試方法,採用汽車產業所使用之行人下肢衝擊器和碰撞人偶之下肢,將傷者與機車之意外事故分成各種不同撞擊情形,進行機車對行人下肢碰撞和機車自傾倒壓迫騎士下肢的模擬與傷害評估,藉此了解並討論各種機車意外事故對人體下肢的傷害風險。
受限於機車外型與結構,機車可安裝之保護裝置相較於汽車種類少,而且目前皆以保護機車騎士為主,另外因其成本因素,所以一般鮮少安裝在價錢較低廉之通勤用輕型機車上,而關於行人下肢受機車撞擊之傷害目前並無相關保護措施可提供防護。本研究根據所模擬出之傷害評估,設計可安裝於機車前方,專對行人下肢的保護裝置,並針對保護裝置之材料性質與吸能機構進行探討,使用田口品質方法進行控制因子水準之配置,分析各控制因子對行人下肢的影響,經由各模擬結果評估後,配置出最佳因子水準,得到最佳保護裝置系統組合。最後經過模擬與分析之結果,本研究之保護裝置可有效降低機車前撞對行人下肢所造成之傷害程度。

Taiwan is an island terrain with high population density. In addition, population is mostly concentrated in the city, causing the city with heavy traffic. For conveniences, the scooter became the main commuting vehicle for the people of Taiwan and this phenomenon is resulting in the unique culture of the traffic in Taiwan. But at the same time pedestrians and scooters accidents often occur on city roads in Taiwan. According to research statistics, lower limbs are the most commonly injured human body region in motorcycle or scooter accidents. Bone fractures, ligament and tendon strain in knee and ankle are among these injury mechanisms. These injuries are usually nonfatal, but it needs to take a lengthy recovery time and has to spend a lot of medical expenses. Therefore, the seriousness can’t be ignored.
In automobile industry, crash test dummies are commonly used as a tool to measure human injuries due to collision for years and mandated in many countries. Therefore, crash test dummies are reliable in replicating responses and assessing injuries for the human. In this study, an adapted dummy sub-system injury assessment method based on the regulation of EEVC (European Enhanced Vehicle-Safety Committee) is proposed to simulate and evaluate the injuries of pedestrians’ and scooter riders’ lower limb. Furthermore, the study is classified into a variety of crash environments in order to understand the human lower limb injury in various scooter accident situations.
Due to the shape and structure, the protection devices used in scooters are less than automobiles. Also, they are generally rarely installed because of the low cost of the scooter. To avoid the pedestrian lower limb injury from the motorcycle crash, there is no protective devices can be provided currently. In this study, a prototype device which can be used in front of the scooter to protect the pedestrian lower limb is proposed. Based on the Taguchi method, the parameter level configuration is adjusted and each control factor for pedestrian lower limb injuries is analyzed. Through the analysis of the simulation results, the optimal factor level is configured to obtain the best protective device combination. Finally, the protection device can effectively reduce pedestrian lower limb injuries according to the outcome resulting from the simulation.

摘要 I
Abstract II
誌謝 III
目錄 IV
表目錄 VII
圖目錄 IX
符號說明 XV
第一章 緒論 1
1.1前言 1
1.2文獻回顧 4
1.3論文架構 7
第二章 研究背景 10
2.1機車發展史 10
2.2機車相關統計 12
2.2.1機車使用概況 12
2.2.2國內機車意外事故統計 14
2.2.3機車意外事故情況統計分析 16
2.2.4機車意外事故人體受傷統計 18
2.3機車相關理論 20
2.3.1機車之車型外觀 20
2.3.2機車輪胎材料特性 21
2.3.3機車之迴轉半徑和傾斜角度之換算 25
2.3.4機車之車殼材料彎曲測試 27
2.4人體下肢簡介 33
2.5道路行人及騎士下肢傷害之探討及評估準則 45
2.5.1行人下肢碰撞過程及傷害 45
2.5.2傷害程度評估的準則 49
2.6人體碰撞測試之方法 51
2.7下肢次系統介紹 58
2.7.1 EEVC下肢衝擊器 58
2.7.2 THOR下肢次系統 67
2.8機車碰撞保護裝置試驗研究規範 75
2.9電腦模擬與理論基礎 76
第三章 材料實驗與模擬 78
3.1實驗設備介紹及設置 78
3.1.1實驗設備介紹 78
3.1.2實驗設置 79
3.2材料試驗電腦模擬設置 82
3.3實驗與模擬結果分析 84
3.3.1材料實驗結果 84
3.3.2材料測試實驗與電腦模擬結果對照 87
3.4小結 89
第四章 電腦模型之建構 90
4.1機車有限元素電腦模型建構 90
4.1.1模型建構流程 90
4.1.2模型相關部件及參數設定 93
4.2下肢次系統電腦模型 98
4.2.1 EEVC下肢衝擊器 98
4.2.2 THOR碰撞人偶下肢 102
4.3傷害情形假設與分類 110
4.3.1 EEVC下肢衝擊器撞擊模擬情形 110
4.3.2 THOR下肢系統撞擊模擬情形 113
4.3.3各傷害情形之電腦模型設定 114
第五章 行人與機車騎士傷害模擬結果分析 118
5.1 EEVC下肢衝擊器碰撞模擬分析 118
5.1.1各型機車於不同車速直線行進前撞模擬結果分析 118
5.1.2各車型機車於不同過彎情況0°方位之前撞模擬結果分析 127
5.1.3各車型於不同方位撞擊情況之模擬結果分析 136
5.2 THOR下肢次系統碰撞模擬分析 147
5.2.1機車前撞行人下肢踝關節結果分析 147
5.2.2行人下肢撞擊過程中之運動軌跡分析 152
5.2.3大腿和膝關節前撞受力之分析與比較 159
5.2.4機車前撞車體受力過程 162
5.2.5機車騎士傾倒壓迫傷害模擬 165
5.2.6小結 169
第六章 機車對行人下肢前撞保護裝置之設計與分析 171
6.1保護裝置之設計概念 171
6.2保護裝置之機構設計 172
6.3田口式品質方法 173
6.4電腦模型設定與模擬結果 175
6.5因子反應及最佳配置設計 180
6.6小結 189
第七章 結論與建議 190
7.1研究結論 190
7.2未來發展與建議 192
參考文獻 194
附錄A SAE J211 199
附錄B 車型2與3於不同過彎情況0°方位前撞模擬結果 201
附錄C 機車騎士傾倒壓迫傷害模擬結果 204


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