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研究生:吳文偉
研究生(外文):Wen-WeiWu
論文名稱:應用三維定位器與機器人於下顎骨重建手術導引之研究
論文名稱(外文):A study on mandible reconstruction surgical guidance using a 3D locator and a robot
指導教授:蔡明俊蔡明俊引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ming-June Tsai
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:機械工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:185
中文關鍵詞:機器視覺機器人校正下顎骨重建光學定位器手術導引
外文關鍵詞:machine visionrobot calibrationMandible reconstruction3D optical locatorSurgery guiding
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本研究致力於開發一套下顎骨重建手術系統(Computer Assistance Mandible Reconstruction System)底下簡稱CAMRS。CAMRS系統整合一套光學式掃描與運動擷取統合為一的三維定位器以及一四軸導引機器人,透過軟體整合,當腓骨在手術中取出後可立即掃描建立腓骨數位模型。根據醫師術前規劃切除部位的幾何特徵形狀進行腓骨切塊的規劃。再以四軸機器人導引面型雷射光照射在預計切塊的位置及方向上,由醫師使用無菌筆在腓骨上畫出切割線。畫出切口位置後,由醫師用骨鋸將腓骨切塊,使切塊的腓骨可拼成欲重建的下顎骨形狀,使切出的腓骨塊可拼成欲重建的下顎骨外緣形狀,且拼接面平整、縮短癒合時間。
本文使用Denavit-Hartenberg(D&H)參數來建立機器人系統運動學模型,並推導順向以及逆向運動學。同時針對四軸導引機器人各軸設計不同的校正方法,透過三維定位器量測四軸導引機器人各軸之空間位置。並且透過校正實驗得到各軸校正結果,計算四軸導引機器人之機構參數(Denavit-Hartenberg參數),根據校正結果得到之機構參數控制導引機器人。同時我們規劃數個導引切割位置,並且由運動學模型求解關節資訊來控制導引機器人至切割位置,由三維定位器追蹤導引位置並且分析導引誤差。最後本文亦設計一最佳化Denavit-Hartenberg(D&H)參數方法,由理想導引切割位置以及導引實驗的結果並透過Nonlinear Least Squares-Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm來求得最佳Denavit-Hartenberg(D&H)參數。最後透過程式整合EPCIO運動控制卡以及三維定位器,來完成各軸之自動化校正流程並且優化Denavit-Hartenberg(D&H)參數,同時將三維定位器與四軸導引機器人註冊。最後進行系統模擬驗證實驗,由光學座標系統下規劃切割的腓骨位置轉換至機器人座標系統下,由逆向運動學求解關節資訊,透過EPCIO運動控制卡控制機器人導引雷射面照射在切割位置。

The purpose of this study is to develop a mandible reconstruction surgery system CAMRS (Computer Assistance Mandible Reconstruction System). CAMRS system includes a dual mode scanning/motion capturing optical 3D locator, a 4-axes laser guiding robot, and a software system for surgical planning. The system first imports a defected mandible STL model. Doctors then locate the boundaries of nidus. And the CAMRS can automatically decide optimal cutting planes to reconstruct the mandible shape. Upon receiving the parameter of the cutting planes, the robot would guide laser plane to project on fibula.
Doctor can draw cutting location using a surgical making pen according to the laser line that project by the robot. Doctors can then use handy saw to cut the fibula precisely. In this way, the reconstructed mandible by fibula bone segments will be smoothly fit together that will reduce the re-habilitation time. The study establish a 4-axes laser guiding robot kinematic model by using Denavit-Hartenberg (D&H) parameter and computed the forward and inverse kinematics of the 4-axes laser guiding robot. We also derived a novel calibration method using the 3D locator and computed axes calibration result by machine vision technology. After calibration, D&H parameters of the robot are obtained without tedious measurement. An optimal set of D&H parameters is also obtained using the Nonlinear Least Squares-Levenberg-
Marquardt algorithm. All the calibration processes for each axis are fully automated, and are presented in this study. Once the calibration finished, program will compute Denavit-Hartenberg (D&H) parameter and the robotic coordinate and optical coordinates are also registered together automatically. Upon receiving the fibula cutting positions, we can solve the joint angles to control the robot via the inverse kinematic, to guide the laser plane.
This paper establishes a fully automatic method to calibrate the D&H parameters for 4-axes robot without assumption of knowing the joint axes direction of the robot. This will save much time on the installation of the robot. In additions, the registration process between robot and 3D locator are also automated.

摘要 I
Abstract III
致謝 V
目錄 VI
圖目錄 IX
表目錄 XVI
第一章序論 1
1.1研究動機與目的 1
1.2文獻回顧 5
1.3本文架構 12
第二章系統架構 15
2.1三維量測模組光路設計 16
2.1.1三維量測模組硬體架構 24
2.1.2影像擷取卡 25
2.1.3三維量測模組規格 26
2.2手術導引機器人 30
2.2.1系統控制原理與方法 41
2.3手術台車設計 46
第三章機器人順逆向運動學 52
3.1. 四軸導引機器人順向運動學 52
3.2. 四軸導引機器人逆向運動學 56
3.3. 導引位置逆向求解策略 63
3.4向量旋轉 65
第四章系統校正 66
4.1第一軸校正 66
4.1.1編碼標誌框 66
4.1.2校正治具 71
4.1.3第一軸校正方法 74
4.2第三四軸校正方法 84
4.2.1線雷射點群擬合方法 85
4.2.1.1高通濾波 87
4.2.1.2中值濾波 88
4.2.1.3雷射線細化- Sobel方法 93
4.2.1.4雷射線細化-灰階權重方法 94
4.2.2第四軸校正方法 100
4.2.3雷射軸校正 114
4.2.4第三軸校正方法 116
4.3第二軸校正方法 129
第五章導引實驗及誤差分析 140
5.1四軸導引機器人校正結果 141
5.2光學模組與機器人座標系統轉換關係 144
5.3導引實驗與誤差分析 146
5.4最佳化D&H參數方法 150
第六章結論及建議 164
6.1研究成果 164
6.2討論與建議 169
參考文獻 173
附錄A­硬體詳細規格 182


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