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研究生:黃聖貿
研究生(外文):Sheng-MaoHuang
論文名稱:類複眼人形機器人之視覺導引物件搬運
論文名稱(外文):Vision-Guided Material Handling of Humanoid Robots with a Compound-like Eye
指導教授:蔡清元蔡清元引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tsing-Iuan Tsay
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:機械工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:84
中文關鍵詞:類複眼機器人視覺導引
外文關鍵詞:Compound-like EyeRobotVision-Guided
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近十年來,機器人相關技術的應用已從工廠自動化延伸至日常生活
中。例如:機器人可於家庭、辦公室、和醫院等日常生活環境中協助人
類。而近幾年來,為了滿足消費者的需求,擁有擬人的外形、具親和力
的設計,及在人類生活環境中的智能等要素的各式人形機器人已被開發
了出來。本研究以實驗室所建構的一個用於打乒乓球的人形機器人,作
為一個視覺導引物件搬運研究平台,其主要由一輪式移動平台、架於移
動平台上的三自由度身軀、二個七自由度的機械手臂、一個七自由度的
機械右手掌、一個二自由度的機械左手掌及一個七自由度的雙眼機械頭
所組成。在雙眼機械頭的眼部機構中,每組眼部都配有兩個CCD 攝影機,
放置在上方的針孔攝影機為寬視野攝影機,下方的則是窄視野攝影機。
而機械頭上的兩組共四個攝影機,組成一個共平面的類複眼。本研究的
主要目標為藉由複眼機械頭以及機械手臂,以位置為基礎的看而後動的
控制策略賦予人形機器人達到物件搬運的功能。為了達成這個目標,所
需的技術包括影像處理中的邊緣偵測、中心點偵測,攝影機內外部參數
的校正,以及最小平方法等。最後經由實驗將目標物放置在不同位置,
藉由控制機械左手掌的逼近及抓取來評估他的定位性能。實驗結果指出
藉由視覺導引的控制策略可使人形機器人完成物件搬運的任務。
In recent decades, robot technology has extended from manufacturing applications to daily life. For instance, robots that assist humans in daily environments, such as in offices, homes and hospitals, are highly desired. Several humanoid robots have been developed in recent years to meet these consumer demands. A humanoid robot that was constructed to play ping-pong is adopted as a research platform for vision-guided material handling. The robot comprises mainly a wheeled mobile base, a torso with a 3 degrees of freedom (D.O.F.) waist mounted on the mobile base, two 7 D.O.F. robot arms, one 7 D.O.F. robotic
right hand, one 2 D.O.F. robotic left hand and one 7 D.O.F. robotic binocular head. In the eye mechanism of the robotic binocular head, each fully assembled eye consists of two
color CCD cameras, the upper lipstick camera capturing a wide-angle peripheral view and the lower camera capturing a narrow-angle view of the central area. Accordingly, these
four cameras of the robotic head are arranged to be a coplanar compound-like eye. The objective of this thesis is to propose a position-based look-and-move control strategy to equip the humanoid robot with the capability of handling the material by the robot arm using the compound-like eye of the robotic head. Numerous techniques are required for
implementing such a capability, including edge detection, corner and centroid detection, camera model calibration, and least-squares estimation. Finally, the positioning performance of the humanoid robot is experimentally evaluated by controlling the robotic left hand to approach and grasp a workpiece in various locations on a table. Experimental results reveal that the proposed vision-guided control strategy ensures the humanoid robot can perform pick-and-place operations.
中文摘要 i
英文摘要 ii
誌謝 iii
目錄 iv
圖目錄 vii
表目錄 ix
符號說明 x

第一章 緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 研究動機與目的 1
1.3 文獻回顧 2
1.4 本文架構 3

第二章 人形機器人之設計介紹 4
2.1 人形機器人設計 4
2.1.1 複眼機械頭之設計 5
2.1.2 機械手掌及機械手臂之設計 7
2.1.3 機械手掌之機構設計 12
2.1.4 人形機器人腰部設計 12
2.1.5 輪式移動平台之設計 14
2.2 機器人之控制系統 14
2.2.1 視覺系統 15
2.2.2 影像擷取卡 17
2.3 人形機器人系統之硬體控制架構 17

第三章 人形機器人之運動模型之建立與分析 19
3.1 座標系統 19
3.2 機械手臂之順向運動學推導 21
3.3 機械手臂之逆向運動學 28
3.4 機械手臂速度運動學 32
3.5 複眼機械頭之座標轉換 38

第四章 攝影機校正 43
4.1 攝影機幾何模型 43
4.2 攝影機校正模型 45
4.2.1 參數表示(Notation) 46
4.2.2 估測Homography 46
4.2.3 解得內部參數 47
4.2.4 徑向失真(Radial Distortion) 49

第五章 人形機器人之頭手協調抓取控制 51
5.1 影像處理 52
5.1.1 影像前處理 52
5.1.2 計算影像面積與重心 53
5.1.3 影像特徵的萃取 54
5.2 目標位置與方位估測 57
5.2.1 靜態複眼立體幾何架構 58
5.2.2 物體的位置及方位 60
5.3 機械手臂與視覺導引控制 62
5.3.1 手臂工作空間之移動策略 63
5.3.2 逼近及抓取目標物之控制策略 64

第六章 實驗 67
6.1 實驗設置 67
6.2 影像定位 69
6.3 機械手臂直線運動實驗 73
6.4 定位性能評估 76
6.5 目標物搬運實驗 78

第七章 結論與未來發展 79
7.1 結論 79
7.2 未來展望 79

參考文獻 80
自述 84

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