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研究生:張家愷
研究生(外文):Chia-KaiChang
論文名稱:人形機器人利用雙軸相機與全景式攝影機之視覺導引餵食任務之研究
論文名稱(外文):Study on Vision-Guided Feeding Tasks by Humanoid Robots Using a Pan-Tilt Camera and a Panoramic Camera
指導教授:蔡清元蔡清元引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tsing-Iuan Tsay
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:機械工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:85
中文關鍵詞:人形機器人視覺導引人臉偵測全景式攝影機
外文關鍵詞:humanoid robotvision-guidedface detectionpanoramic camera
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除了在傳統產業的應用外,機器人也擴充到我們的生活上,如醫療保健、娛樂、安全和家庭生活領域。在本研究中,採用過去實驗室所建造的人形機器人作為餵食工作的平台。機器人配有一個全方向輪的移動式基底平台,一個固定式的身軀固定在平台上,兩隻各具有七自由度之機械手臂,兩個機械手掌,另在頭部裝置有一台全景式攝影機和一台雙軸相機。在餵食的任務中,機器人分成兩個階段來動作。機器人首先從餐盤裡抓取固態食物,再移動到被餵食者的位置進行餵食。而本研究的重點著重於餵食任務的第二階段。本論文的目的為提出一種視覺導引之姿態控制策略,利用全景式攝影機與雙軸相機賦予機器人的機械手臂進行餵食任務的能力。實現此任務需要的技術包括人臉偵測、人臉姿態估測、全景式攝影機與雙軸相機的內外部參數校正。最後,我們透過一組實驗執行來驗證機器人以視覺導引進行餵食任務的效益,實驗結果顯示機器人沒有事先得知被餵食者的位置就可以進行餵食任務。
In addition to traditional applications in industry, robots now support our lives in such areas as medical care, entertainment, security and home life. In this study, a humanoid robot that was constructed in our laboratory is employed as a research platform for feeding tasks. The robot comprises mainly an omni-directional wheeled base, a fixed torso mounted on the mobile base, two seven-degrees-of-freedom arms, two robot hands and a head equipped with a panoramic camera and a pan-tilt camera. In the task of feeding, the robot moves in two stages. The arm of the robot is first controlled to grasp solid foods in the meal tray, and is then driven to feed the person with foods. This study focuses on the second stage of movement in feeding tasks. The objective of this thesis is to propose a vision-guided control strategy to equip the robot with the capability of feeding the person with foods by the robot arm using a pan-tilt camera and a panoramic camera. Numerous techniques are required for implementing such a capability, including face detection, face pose estimation, pan-tilt camera calibration, and panoramic camera calibration. Finally, a set of experiments are conducted to verify the effectiveness of vision-guided feeding task by a humanoid robot. Experimental results reveal that the proposed approach ensures that the robot can feed a person with the foods without beforehand information about the location of the fed person.
中文摘要i
英文摘要ii
誌謝iii
目錄iv
圖目錄vii
表目錄ix
符號說明x

第一章 緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 研究動機與目的 1
1.3 文獻回顧 1
1.4 本文架構 3

第二章 人形機器人之硬體介紹 4
2.1 人形機器人之結構 4
2.1.1 機械手臂之機構 5
2.1.2 機械手掌之機構 8
2.1.3 全方向輪式平台 10
2.2 機器人之感測元件 11
2.2.1 視覺系統 11
2.2.2 影像擷取卡 14
2.2.3 雷射測距儀 15
2.2.4 陀螺儀 15
2.3 機器人系統之硬體控制架構 15

第三章 機械人之分析 17
3.1 全方向輪式底盤之運動學分析 17
3.2 機器手臂運動學分析 20
3.2.1 座標系統 20
3.2.2 機械手臂之座標系統 22
3.2.3 機械手臂之順向運動學 26
3.2.4 機械手臂之逆向運動學 27
3.2.5 機械手臂之速度運動學 31
3.3 機械手臂工作空間之軌跡規劃 37
3.3.1 空間中直線路徑 38
3.3.2 空間之方位 39
3.3.3 軌跡規劃 41
3.3.4 手臂餵食之軌跡規劃 44

第四章 機器人之攝影機簡介與影像處理 46
4.1 攝影機簡介 46
4.2 PTZ攝影機之校正 46
4.2.1 一般攝影機之幾何模型 46
4.2.2 攝影機校正模型 48
4.2.3 參數表示 49
4.2.4 Homography之估測 49
4.2.5內部參數之計算法 50
4.2.6 PTZ攝影機內部參數之數值 52
4.3 全景式攝影機之校正 54
4.3.1 全景式攝影機之幾何模型 54
4.3.2 全景式攝影機之校正方法 57
4.3.3 全景式攝影機內外部參數之計算 60
4.4 雙攝影機之幾何架構 62
4.4.1 全景式攝影機之視角對應關係 62
4.4.2 景深之計算方法 63
4.4.3 景深測試 65
4.5 人臉之影像處理 67
4.5.1 影像前處理 67
4.5.2 人臉偵測 68
4.5.3 人臉姿態估測 69

第五章 實驗 72
5.1 實驗設置 72
5.2 人臉之影像辨識 75
5.5.1臉部影像辨識 75
5.5.2臉部特徵點影像辨識 75
5.3 機器人定位性能之評估與實驗 77

第六章 結論 82
6.1 總結 82
6.2 未來展望 82

參考文獻 83

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