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研究生:莊鈴君
研究生(外文):Ling-ChunChuang
論文名稱:適合台灣三歲小孩電腦人偶模型建立
論文名稱(外文):Development of an Adapted Computer ATD Model for 3-year-old Taiwanese Children
指導教授:黃才烱黃才烱引用關係
指導教授(外文):T.J. Huang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:機械工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:93
中文關鍵詞:兒童人偶有限元素模型生物動態反應資料縮放係數
外文關鍵詞:child ATDfinite element modelimpact biomechanical datascale factors
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  • 下載下載:2
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兒童是未來的主人翁,保護兒童的安全和預防兒童受到意外傷害,是許多國家重要的工作之一,台灣亦不例外。跌倒與車禍是兒童意外傷害的主要原因,其中在車禍傷害的研究中,汽車工業界最常使用的測試工具就是碰撞人偶,因為人偶的動態反應與人體相似,常用來作為替代人類進行危險性的高速車輛碰撞測試,所以人偶可以應用於保護兒童及預防兒童受傷害的相關研究。然而真實人偶造價昂貴,相對之下,建立人偶的電腦模型較符合經濟效益,所以本研究將建立三歲兒童的電腦有限元素模型,並且對其進行頭頸部的生物擬真性驗證。
由於三歲兒童的生物動態反應資料闕如,本研究將50%成人男性自願者的相關資料透過縮放理論得到三歲兒童動態反應資料。本研究透過縮放理論得到頭頸部的尺寸、頭部加速度、頸部角度、力矩、週期等縮放係數。得到兒童的縮放係數後,透過有限元素電腦模擬軟體,可將現有的Hybrid III 50%成人男性人偶模型,依其縮放係數,縮放成三歲兒童Hybrid III模型及台灣三歲兒童的有限元素模型兩種。將此兩種兒童頭頸部模型進行做生物擬真性驗證,並比較其試驗結果,最後應用模型進行滑車實驗模擬,並且評估在撞擊過程中兒童所受到的傷害。研究結果顯示,台灣三歲兒童與Hybrid III三歲兒童的頭部皆具有生物擬真性。
Children play a crucial role for the development of a country in the future. Therefore, the protection of children to avoid accidental injuries usually is one of important works for many countries. Taiwan is no exception. Car accident and falling are two major causes for child’s accidental injury. Child anthropomorphic test device (ATD) is commonly utilized in automobile industries. Since a child ATD can replicate the human response during impact. As a matter of fact, the use of a dummy should be able to apply in the field of safety child research. However, the physical dummy is an expensive equipment. The alternative way to replace physical dummy is to develop a computer model. In the thesis, the main objective is to develop a three-year-old child dummy computer finite element model.
Since some impact biomechanical data of children are not available currently, a scaled-down technique is applied to estimate the data based on 50% adult male data in this study. By comparing the anthropometry between child and adult male, the geometry scale factors can be obtained. Based on the fundamental theory of mechanics, the impact biomechanical data of children can be estimated by using these scale factors. Then, an adapted 3-year-old child finite element model can be developed from the Hybrid III 50% male dummy according to above scaling data. Since the size of a Taiwanese child is different from his/her American counterpart, a 3-year-old Taiwanese child ATD model is also developed in this study. Head and neck are two major regions for child accidents. Therefore, the calibration simulations are conducted to validate both model’s biofidelity in this study. The results from simulations are similar to above estimated biomechanical data. Accordingly, two new models are biofidelic in head and neck. Finally, a sled test is performed as an example by using the newly developed model in the study to measure the child’s safety during impact.
摘要 I
Abstract II
誌謝 III
目錄 IV
表目錄 VII
圖目錄 IX
符號說明 XII
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 文獻回顧 5
1.2.1 碰撞人偶簡介 5
1.2.2 電腦數值模擬 7
1.3 研究目的 9
1.4 論文架構 9
第二章 研究背景 12
2.1 生物擬真性的測試方法 12
2.1.1頭部墜落測試 12
2.1.2 頸部單擺測試 13
2.2 傷害評估 17
2.3 縮放理論 20
2.3.1 頭部縮放係數 21
2.3.2 頸部縮放係數 24
2.3.3 軀幹縮放係數 27
2.3.4 四肢縮放係數 27
2.3.5 楊氏係數縮放係數 28
第三章 縮放係數與動態反應區間 30
3.1 兒童人體計測 30
3.2 Hybrid III三歲兒童 30
3.2.1 頭部尺寸與質量縮放係數 32
3.2.2 頸部尺寸與質量縮放係數 32
3.2.3 軀幹尺寸與質量縮放係數 33
3.2.4 四肢尺寸與質量縮放係數 33
3.3 台灣三歲兒童 34
3.3.1 頭部尺寸及質量縮放係數 36
3.3.2 頸部尺寸及質量縮放係數 37
3.2.3 軀幹尺寸與質量縮放係數 37
3.2.4 四肢尺寸與質量縮放係數 38
3.4 尺寸及質量縮放係數統整 38
3.5 Hybrid III三歲兒童生物動態反應區間 40
3.5.1 頭部墜落測試反應區間 40
3.5.2 頸部單擺測試反應區間 40
3.6 台灣三歲兒童的生物動態反應區間 42
3.6.1 頭部墜落測試反應區間 42
3.6.2 頸部單擺測試反應區間 43
3.7 生物動態反應區間統整 44
第四章 兒童的建模 47
4.1 台灣三歲兒童人偶 47
4.1.1 頭部墜落測試模擬 48
4.1.2 頸部單擺測試模擬 50
4.2 Hybrid III三歲兒童人偶 59
4.2.1 頭部墜落測試模擬 60
4.2.2 頸部單擺測試模擬 61
4.3 小結 67
4.4 模型應用模擬 74
第五章 結論與建議 78
5.1 結論 78
5.2 建議與未來發展 79
參考文獻 81
附錄A SAE J211 85
附錄B 電腦模擬材料設定 87
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