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研究生:伊威廉
研究生(外文):William JohnEaton
論文名稱:赫德與清廷人士的往來及其宗教思維的轉變
論文名稱(外文):Robert Hart’s Relationship with Qing Officials and the Evolution of His Religious Beliefs
指導教授:陳玉女陳玉女引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yuh-Neu Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:歷史學系碩博士班
學門:人文學門
學類:歷史學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:107
中文關鍵詞:赫德清廷宗教
外文關鍵詞:Robert HartQing DynastyReligion
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赫德(Robert Hart,1835年2月20日~1911年9月20日)在就任海關總稅務司(從1863到1911年)前,曾短暫的在中國英國領事館擔任領事人員。赫德出生在一個英國愛爾蘭阿馬郡波塔當(Portadown, County Armagh)的小鎮上。由於生長在一個虔誠信奉衛理公會派(Wesleyan)的家庭裡,宗教在他的生活中扮演著舉足輕重的角色。赫德的年輕歲月都是在中國度過,在這段期間,他憑藉著對宗教的熱忱,在中國宗教與哲學之間尋找生命的意義及真理。此番經歷造就他與當時英國維多利亞同時代的人對宗教及哲學有著不同的看法及見解。在中國工作的這五十年中,赫德都是跟一群外籍人士共同生活。由於其職務的關係,跟他往來的人士像文祥、恭親王奕訢和李鴻章等都是當時傑出的中國政治家。也正因如此,藉由這強而有力的中外人脈,他才能躲過當時由義和團所發起中國史上最紛亂的內部暴動。赫德獨特的文化出身背景使他能夠拋開民族傳統觀念束縛,將不同文化的理念融合為一。這種超越國籍以及文化的包容力讓他能幫助英國與其他國家發展及建立良好關係。整體來說,赫德是近代史中少見而且獨特的人物,經由研究他精采的一生,後人才能了解是什麼樣動蕩的年代造就出像他這樣不平凡的人。
Sir Robert Hart (20 February 1835 – 20 September 1911), was briefly a British consular official in China, before serving as the second Inspector General of China's Imperial Maritime Custom Service from 1863 to 1911. Robert Hart was born into a devout Methodist family in Portadown, County Armagh, Ulster, Ireland and religion was to play an important role in his life. He spent much of his youth and early years in China searching for meaning and understanding, in his own faith and among the religions and philosophies in China. His religious sojourn brought him to some conclusions uncommon among his British Victorian contemporaries. During his more than 50 years in China, Robert Hart worked and lived among other members of the foreign community. Owing to his position as Inspector General, he also worked alongside some of the most prominent Chinese statesmen of the day, Wen-xiang, Prince Gong and Li Hong-zhang. He was able to build a network among these elites, both foreign and domestic which served him well as he lived through one of the worst internal revolts in Chinese history, the Boxer Rebellion. Due the circumstances of his place of birth and unique cultural sensitivity, Robert Hart was able to transcend traditional notions of nationality and hold multiple national identities at once. This ability served him in his dealings with representatives of his own country, other foreign countries and his employers. Robert Hart is a unique figure in modern history and a better understanding of him as a person cannot but help to better understand the turbulent period of transition he was witness to.
中文摘要………………………………………………………………i
英文摘要………………………………………………………………ii
誌謝……………………………………………………………………iv
目錄……………………………………………………………………v
第一章 前言…………………………………………………………01
第一節 研究動機…………………………………………01
第二節 研究回顧…………………………………………03
第三節 研究資料…………………………………………08
第四節 章節架構…………………………………………09
第二章 赫德的宗教思維轉變………………………………………11
第一節 宗教書籍的閱讀和研究…………………………12
第二節 教堂做禮拜………………………………………16
第三節 關於神學的觀點及其對傳教的態度……………21
第四節 赫德對中國宗教的理解…………………………28
第三章 赫德的北京人際關係及其對義和團運動反應……………43
第一節 赫德與北京外籍人士的往來……………………43
第二節 赫德與清廷官員交往……………………………49
第三節 赫德在義和團運動期間的行動…………………65
第四章 赫德的民族認同……………………………………………75
第一節 英國赫德…………………………………………76
第二節 英格蘭赫德………………………………………79
第三節 愛爾蘭赫德………………………………………81
第四節 阿爾斯特的基督教徒赫德………………………84
第五節 中國赫德…………………………………………86
第五章 結論…………………………………………………………90
徵引書目………………………………………………………………95
附錄:赫德年譜…………………………………………………… 103

(一)史料
I、英文
1.Bruner, Katherine F., John K. Fairbank, & Richard J. Smith, ed. Entering China’s Service: Robert Hart’s Journals, 1854-1863. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Council on East Asian Studies, 1986.
2.Fairbank, John K., Katherine Frost Bruner, & Elizabeth MacLeod Matheson, ed. The I. G. in Peking: Letters of Robert Hart Chinese Maritime Customs, 1868-1907. 2 vols. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1975.
3.Hart, Sir. Robert, These from the Land of Sinim. London: Chapman & Hall, 1901.
4.King, Paul H., In the Chinese Customs Service: A Personal Record of Forty-seven Years. London, Heath Cranton, 1924.
5.Lucas, Charles P., Sir Robert Hart in Sir Sidney Lee (Ed.), Dictionary of National Biography, Second Supplement vol. II, London: Smith, Elder & Co, 1912.
6.Martin, W. A. P., A Cycle of Cathay or China, South and North with Personal Reminiscences. New York, Fleming H. Revell Company, 1900.
7.Martin, W.A.P., The Awakening of China. New York: Doubleday, Page & Co., 1907.
8.Morse, Hosea Ballou, The International Relations of the Chinese Empire. 3 vols. London, New York: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1910.
9.Nevius, Helen S.C., Our Life in China. Hurst & Company: New York, 1891.
10.Parsons, William Barclay, An American Engineer in China. New York: McClure, Phillips & Co., 1900
11.Smith, Richard J., John K. Fairbank, & Katherine F. Bruner, ed. Robert Hart and China’s Early Modernization: Robert Hart’s Journals, 1863-1866. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Council on East Asian Studies, 1991.
12.von Gumpach, Johannes, The Burlingame Mission. Shanghai, London and New York, 1872.
13.Wright, Stanley ed., Documents Illustrative of the Origin, Development, and Activities of the Chinese Maritime Customs Service. Shanghai, Statistical Department of the Inspector General of Customs, 1938.
II、中文
1.文祥撰(清),《文文忠公自訂年譜》,臺北:廣文出版社,1971。
2.李鴻章(清),《李文忠公全集》(七冊),臺北:文海出版社,1968。
3.奕訢著(清),《樂道堂文鈔》(兩冊),臺北:文海出版社,1976。
4.陳霞飛主編,《中國海關密檔:赫德、金登幹函電匯編 (1874-1907)》(九冊),北京:中華出版,1990。
5.鄧承修(清),《語冰閣奏議》,臺北:文海出版社,1967。
6.曾紀澤撰(清),《曾惠敏公(紀澤)文集》,臺北:文海出版社,1975。
7.曾紀澤撰(清),《曾惠敏公(紀澤)使西日記》,臺北:文海出版社,1975。
8.鄭觀應撰(清),《盛世危言增訂新編》,臺北:臺灣學生書局,1965。
9.潘安生輯述,《赫德史料》,臺北:交通部郵政總局郵政博物館印行,1969。
10.賈楨等纂(清),《籌辦夷務始末.咸豐朝》(十冊),臺北:文海出版社,1970。
11.寶鋆修(清),《籌辦夷務始末.同治朝》(十六冊),臺北:文海出版社,1971。
(二)專書
I、英文
1.Bell, Stanley, Hart of Lisburn. Lisburn: Lisburn Historical Press, 1985.
2.Biggerstaff, Knight, The Earliest Modern Government Schools in China. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1961.
3.Bredon, Juliet, Sir Robert Hart: The Romance of a Great Career. London: Hutchinson & Co., 1909.
4.Campbell, Robert Ronald, James Duncan Campbell: A Memoir by his Son, Cambridge, MA: Harvard East Asian Monographs, 1970.
5.Fairbank, John K., Trade and Diplomacy on the China Coast: The Opening of the Treaty Ports, 1842-1854. 2 vols. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1953.
6.Fairbank, John K., Martha Henderson Coolidge, and Richard J. Smith. H.B. Morse, Customs Commissioner and Historian of China. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1995.
7.Foster, Roy, Paddy and Mr. Punch: Connections in Irish and English History. London: Allen Lane, 1993.
8.Gernet, Jacques, Le Monde Chinois. Paris: Librairie Armand Colin, 1972.
9.Haw, Stephen G., Beijing: A Concise History. Routledge: New York, 2007.
10.Hsu, Immanuel C.Y., The Rise of Modern China. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
11.O’Hart, John, The Irish and Anglo-Irish Landed Gentry when Cromwell came to Ireland. Dublin: M.H.Gill & Son, 1884.
12.Spence, Jonathon, To Change China: Western Advisers in China. New York: Penguin, 2002.
13.Spence, Jonathon, The Search for Modern China. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1999.
14.Spector, Stanley, Li Hung-chang and the Huai Army: A Study in Nineteenth-Century Chinese Regionalism. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1964.
15.Wright, Mary C., The Last Stand of Chinese Conservatism: The T’ung-Chih Restoration, 1862-1874. Stanford University Press, 1957.
16.Wright, Stanley F., Hart and the Chinese Customs. Belfast: Wm. Mullen & Son, 1950.
II、中文
1.李宗桐和劉鳳翰撰,《李鴻藻先生年譜》(兩冊),臺北:中國學術著作獎助委員會,1969。
2.李恩涵,《曾紀澤的外交》,臺北:中央研究院近代史研究所,1982。
3.汪敬虞,《赫德與近代中西關係》,北京:人民出版社出版,1987。
4.郭廷以撰,《近代中國史日誌》(兩冊),臺北:中央研究院近代史研究所印行,1963。
5.潘安生,《赫德史料》,臺北:精華印書館股份有限公司,1969。
6.蕭一山,《清代通史》,上海:上海出版社,1992。
(三)期刊論文
I、英文
1.Anderson, Perry, “A Belated Encounter. London Review of Books, Vol. 20 No. 15, 30 July 1998, pp. 3-10.
2.Eberhard-Breard, Andrea, “Robert Hart and China's statistical revolution. Modern Asian Studies, Vol. 40 Issue 3 (July 2006): pp. 605-629.
3.Fairbank, John K., “The creation of the treaty system in Fairbank, John K., ed., The Cambridge History of China, Volume 10: Late Ch’ing, 1800-1911, Part 1. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 1978, pp. 213-263.
4.Hao, Yen-p’ing and Erh-min Wang, “Changing Chinese views of Western relations, 1840-95 in Fairbank, John K., ed., The Cambridge History of China, Volume 10: Late Ch’ing, 1800-1911, Part 2. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 1978, pp. 142-201.
5.Kuang, Zhao-Jiang(鄺兆江), “A China Career in Detail: Robert Hart's Letters to J. D. Campbell. The Journal of the Institute of Chinese Studies of the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Issue 11 Hong Kong (1980), pp. 291-301.
6.Kuo, Ting-Yee and Kwang-Ching Liu, “Self-strengthening: the pursuit of Western technology in Fairbank, John K., ed., The Cambridge History of China, Volume 10: Late Ch’ing, 1800-1911, Part 1. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 1978, pp. 491-542.
7.Liu, Kwang-Ching, “Li Hung-chang in Chihli: The Emergence of a Policy, 1870-1875 in Chu, Samuel C. & Kwang-Ching Liu eds., Li Hung-chang and China’s Early Modernization. Armonk, New York: M. E. Sharpe, Inc., 1994, pp. 49-75.
8.Liu, Kwang-Ching, “Politics, Intellectual Outlook, and Reform: The T’ung-wen kuan Controversy of 1867 in Paul A. Cohen and John E. Schrecker eds., Reform in Nineteenth-Century China. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1976, pp. 87-100.
9.Liu, Kwang-Ching, “The Beginnings of China’s Modernization in Chu, Samuel C. & Kwang-Ching Liu eds., Li Hung-chang and China’s Early Modernization. Armonk, New York: M. E. Sharpe, Inc., 1994, pp. 3-14.
10.Lui, Kwang-ching, “The Ch’ing Restoration. in Fairbank, John K., ed., The Cambridge History of China, Volume 10: Late Ch’ing, 1800-1911, Part 1. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press, 1978, pp. 409-491.
11.O’Leary, Richard, “Robert Hart in China: The Significance of his Irish Roots. Modern Asian Studies, Vol. 40 Issue 3 (July 2006): pp. 583-604.
12.Smith, Richard J., “Li Hung-chang’s Use of Foreign Military Talent: The Formative Period, 1862-1874 in Chu, Samuel C. & Kwang-Ching Liu eds., Li Hung-chang and China’s Early Modernization. Armonk, New York: M. E. Sharpe, Inc., 1994, pp. 119-139.
13.van de Ven, Hans, “Robert Hart and Gustav Detring during the Boxer Rebellion. Modern Asian Studies, Vol. 40 Issue 3 (July 2006), pp. 631-662.
II、中文
1.王建華、江宏衛,〈略論赫德與晚清中國國家郵政〉,《蘇州大學學報(哲學社會科學版)》,第1期(蘇州:2000年1月),頁89-93。
2.王成聖,〈晚清最有權勢的洋人赫德〉,《中外雜誌》,20:3(臺北:1976年9月),頁58-61。
3.沈惠芬,〈走向世界——晚清中國海關與1873年維也納世界博覽會〉,《福建師範大學學報(哲學社會科學版)》,第4期(福州:2004年4月),頁106-113。
4.陳曉東,〈港、澳鴉片稅厘并征與中葡北京條約〉,《蘇州鐵道師範學院學報》,第17卷 第4期(蘇州:2000年12月),頁86-89。
5.晏星,〈中國現代郵政創辦者赫德[Robert Hart]的自述〉,《交通建設》,第34卷 第3期(臺北:1985年3月),頁19-27。
6.張模超,〈赫德與葡萄牙強占澳門〉,《西南師范大學學報(人文社會科學版)》,第25卷 第6期(重慶:1999年11月),頁1-4。
7.程文華,〈赫德[Robert Hart]與中國近代外交之關係〉,《國立政治大學學報》,第31期(臺北:1975年5月),頁101-129。
8.楊仁江,〈赫德與臺灣早期的兩座洋式燈塔:西嶼燈塔與鵝鑾鼻燈塔〉,《中國文化大學建築及都市計劃研究學報》,第1期(臺北:1996年6月),頁133-158。
9.詹慶華,〈近代中國海關洋員與美國的漢學研究〉,《二十一世紀》,雙月刊總第99期,(香港:2007年2月),頁116-124。
(四)研討會論文
1.Parker, Jason H., “The Rise and Decline of I-hsin, Prince Kung, 1858-1865: A Study of the Interaction of Politics and Ideology in Late Imperial China. PhD Dissertation. Princeton University, 1979.
(五)網路資源
I、英文
1.“China and the West: The Maritime Customs Service Archive: From the Second Historical Archives, Nanjing, China Print Source Media http://www.gale.cengage.com/psm/
2.China Stamp Values, Hobbizine, http://www.hobbizine.com/
3.“Sir Robert Hart Collection Queen’s University Belfast Library Special Collections http://digitalcollections.qub.ac.uk/digital-image-gallery/hart/
II、中文
1.佚名,〈神秘“蛋形太極圖成就中國最早防偽術〉漢今收藏,12-07-2011,http://www.okcang.cn/
2.〈英國人所立的紀念建築、塑像——赫德銅像〉,上海市楊浦區圖書館 http://www.yplib.org.cn/structure/jdsh/bnsz/jz_73168_1.ht

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