跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(3.238.135.174) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/08/05 07:24
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:李慈慧
研究生(外文):Ribka
論文名稱:探討與評估印尼加里曼丹省退化泥炭沼澤林之管理替代方案
論文名稱(外文):Identification and Evaluation of Development Alternatives for the Degraded Peat Swamp Forest in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia
指導教授:福島康裕
指導教授(外文):Yasuhiro Fukushima
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:環境工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:英文
論文頁數:78
中文關鍵詞:生命週期評估泥炭沼澤森林橡膠油棕櫚替代管理方案
外文關鍵詞:life cycle assessmentpeat swamp forestrubberoil palmmanagement alternative
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
  • 點閱點閱:135
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
本文在探討退化泥炭沼澤森林的可能替代管理方案。根據中加里曼丹省泥炭地區域的初步質化研究,發現該區經常發生違法盜木與森林火災之情事,且環境保護的缺乏並伴隨著低落的經濟發展和社會福利為重要之議題。有鑑於當地居民生計維持的需求以及在地居民參與的重要性,種植天然橡膠樹日漸興起成為油棕櫚的潛在替代品,此兩者替代方案與基線情境(Business As Usual)的進一步比較分為三個步驟進行:首先,假設於一公頃的退化泥炭沼澤森林分別種植橡膠樹(RP)與油棕櫚(OP),本研究建立從種植到加工初級產品以及基線情境的溫室氣體排放清冊。其次,研究架構五種情境模式基於可行方案的土地分配和勞動力運輸之限制條件,而先前的超米計畫(Mega Rice Project) 實行區域為本研究著眼之場址。第三,各情境皆依據其對環境的溫室氣體排放和經濟層面的影響進行評估。再者,本研究亦考慮分別以天然橡膠(NR)和天然棕櫚油(CPO)取代合成橡膠(SR)及汽油之效應。
從基線(business as usual, BAU)情境可知,未開發之退化泥炭沼澤森林每年每公頃排放21.84公噸二氧化碳當量。另一方面,根據清冊資料的發展顯示,第二替代方案為種植橡膠樹(RP)以生產新鮮乳膠(Fresh Latex, FL),每年每公頃會排放出8.107公噸二氧化碳當量(BAU排放量的37%)。此外,假若新鮮乳膠被加工為各種不同產品,將額外會有其不同的碳排放量:濃縮乳膠(0.09 tonnes CO2-eq/ha/year)、標準印尼橡膠(0.21 tonnes CO2-eq/ha/year)、RSS煙膠(0.01 tonnes CO2-eq/ha/year)。第三替代方案則為種植油棕樹(OP)以生產天然棕櫚油,其溫室氣體排放量為每年每公頃98.13公噸二氧化碳當量(相當於BAU排放量的450%)。以上替代方案的排放結果均以25年的種植週期為假設前提,三種方案之中,以RP最有發展潛力。
三個替代方案分別有下列情境: 基線(BAU)、RP5+BAU、RP20+BAU、RP5+OP和RP20+OP,其就業率分別為0%、3.7%、34%、44.4%和62.85%。同時,總碳排放量分別為3.71、3.63、2.98、16.12和11.86 million tonnes CO2-eq/year。如同預估,以天然橡膠和天然油棕櫚(CPO)取代合成橡膠和石化燃料,可分別減少各情境排放量0%、53.24%、95.78%、96.10%和96.69%。
總體來說,種植天然橡膠樹(RP)和種植油棕櫚(OP)的結合是解決ex-MRP區域內就業問題最有潛力的方案。RP勞力來源傾向於雇用當地員工,而OP則是鼓勵外島移民。為了減少當地居民和外來移民間衝突發生,人力資源的管理在實施任何情境皆十分重要。就環境的角度看來,總排放量和基線(BAU)並沒有太大的差別。一旦退化泥炭沼澤林(PSF)管理妥善,可避免森林和泥炭火災所造成的排放,則印尼林業的排放量可減少。然而,種植活動會將排放量轉移至其他部分,如農業和能源使用。最後,由於用NR和CPO來替代SR及汽油,全球碳排放量可降低。適當的管理策略是控制替代性轉變的關鍵以確保環境利益優先於經濟利益。

This research studies the possible alternatives in managing the degraded peat swamp forest (PSF). A preliminary qualitative research has been conducted in the Central Kalimantan (CK) peatland area where illegal loggings and forest fires are common. The study found that people faced an inferior economic development and low standard of well-being, as the consequent, lack of environmental conservation as the main concern was discovered. Considering the strong local mindset of extracting natural resources and the importance of local involvement, rubber plantation (RP) emerges as a more potential alternative to oil palm plantation (OP). Business as usual (BAU) situation as comparison to RP and OP is taken into account. Then, the further comparison of three alternatives is conducted in three steps. First, greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory data for BAU, RP and OP on one hectare of degraded PSF starting from planting to processing primary products is developed. Second, five scenarios are formulated based on possible alternatives with the constraints of land distribution and workforce transportation. Ex-Mega Rice Project (MRP) area is considered as a study site for application. Third, each scenario is evaluated based on impacts on environment (GHGs emission) and economy (employment rate). Further, the substitution effect of natural rubber (NR) and crude palm oil (CPO) to their substitutes, which are synthetic rubber (SR) and petrol, is considered.
The first alternative, BAU emits 21.84 ton CO2-eq ha-1 year-1 from undeveloped degraded PSF. On the other hand, GHG inventory data development shows that RP as second alternative emits 8.11 ton CO2-eq ha-1 year-1 (37% of BAU’s emission) in producing fresh latex (FL) while additional emissions occur if FL is processed into concentrated latex (0.09 ton CO2-eq ha-1 year-1), standard Indonesian rubber (0.21 ton CO2-eq ha-1 year-1), and ribbed smoked sheet (0.01 ton CO2-eq ha-1 year-1). Meanwhile, third alternative, OP, emits 98.13 ton CO2-eq ha-1 year-1 (450% of BAU’s emission) in producing CPO. The results are based on assumptions of 25 years plantation cycle. Among the three alternatives, RP appears as a more potential one.
The three alternatives bring us to the following scenarios: BAU, RP5+BAU, RP20+BAU, RP5+OP, and RP20+OP with the employment rate is 0%, 3.7%, 34%, 44.4%, and 62.85%, respectively. Meanwhile, the total emission is 3.71, 3.63, 2.98, 16.12, and 11.86 million ton CO2-eq per year, respectively. As the prediction, NR and CPO can reduce the emission of their substitutes: SR and petrol by 0%, 53.24%, 95.78%, 96.10%, and 96.69%, respectively for each scenario.
In conclusion, the combination of RP and OP is the most potential scenario for employment problem in the Ex-MRP area. The labor for RP prefers the local employees while OP encourages migration from other islands. However, human resource management is important when applying any scenario in order to weaken the conflict between local and migrants. In environmental perspective, the overall emissions do not differ much from BAU. The forestry emission of Indonesia could decrease if degraded PSF is managed properly because emission from forest and peat fires can be avoided. However, plantation activity will transfer the emission to other sectors such as agriculture and energy usage. Finally, the global emission can decrease because of substitution effect of SR and petrol by NR and CPO. A proper management strategy is crucial to control the substituting shift to ensure economic behind the environmental benefit.

Table of contents
Abstract i
摘要 iii
Acknowledgement v
Table of contents vii
Figure index ix
Table index xi
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Preface 1
1.1.1 Degradation of Indonesian peat swamp forest 2
1.1.2 Social problem (preliminary study in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia) 8
1.1.2.1. Objective and methodology 8
1.1.2.2. Intended location 8
1.1.2.3. Community profile 10
1.1.2.4. Findings 12
1.2 Objective 13
Chapter 2 Literature Review 15
2.1 Emission from degraded and land use transition of PSF 15
2.2 Indonesian natural rubber production 20
2.2.1 Overview 20
2.2.2 Primary stakeholders and their roles and relationships 21
2.3 Indonesian primary rubber products 24
2.4 Crude palm oil production 28
Chapter 3 Methodology 30
3.1 Life cycle assessment 30
3.2 Goal and scope definition 32
3.3 Development of GHG inventory data 33
3.3.1. Business as usual (BAU) 33
3.3.2. Rubber plantation (harvesting and processing) 33
3.3.2.1 Fertilizer 40
3.3.2.2 Formic acid 41
3.3.2.3 Diesel 41
3.3.2.4 Electricity production 42
3.3.2.5 Ammonia 42
3.3.2.6 Wood 43
3.3.3. Oil palm plantation (harvesting and processing) 43
3.4 Application of scenario 44
Chapter 4 Result and discussion 49
4.1 Inventory data 49
4.1.1. Rubber plantation 49
4.1.1.1 GHGs emission of fresh latex production 49
4.1.1.2 GHGs emission of primary rubber products production 52
4.2 Management of one hectare degraded PSF 55
4.3 Assessment of the application scenario 57
4.3.1. Zoning process by using Scion Image Software 57
4.3.2. Environmental impact 60
4.3.3. Emission reduction globally 62
4.3.4. Social impact 65
Chapter 5 Conclusion 67
Chapter 6 Suggestion 69
References 72
Appendix 77


Adam, A. W., Legge, J. D., Leinbach, T. R., McDivitt, J. F., Mohamad, G. S., & Wolters, O. W. (2012). Indonesia Encyclopedia Britannica.
Administration, U. S. E. I. (2007). Appendix F. ELectricity Emission Factors. United States.
Agency, F. P. (2003). Indonesia Forestry Statistics. Jakarta, Indonesia: Ministry of Forestry Republic of Indonesia.
Agus, F., Runtunuwu, E., Syahbuddin, H., June, T., Las, I., Susanti, E., . . . Noordwijk, M. v. (2009). CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION IN LAND USE TRANSITIONS TO PLANTATION. Jurnal Litbang Pertanian, 28(4), 119-126.
Althaus, H.-J., Chudacoff, M., Hischier, R., Jungbluth, N., Osses, M., & Primas, A. (2007). Life Cycle Inventories of Chemicals (Vol. 8). Dendorf, CH: Swiss Centre for LCI, Empa - TSL.
Althaus, H. (2007). Synthetic rubber, at plant/kg/RER. In E. s. process (Ed.).
Baumann, H., & Tilman, A.-M. (2004). The Hitch Hiker's Giude to LCA: An orientation in life cycle assessment methodology and application. Lund, Sweden: Studentlitteratur AB.
Board, R. (2002). Latex Preservation and Concentration Retrieved December 10, 2011, from http://rubberboard.org.in/ManageCultivation.asp?Id=192
Boehm, H.-D. V., & Siegert, F. (2001). ECOLOGICAL IMPACT OF THE ONE MILLION HECTARE RICE PROJECT IN CENTRAL KALIMANTAN, INDONESIA, USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS: Land Use Change and (Il)-legal Logging in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Paper presented at the The 22nd Asian Conference on Remote Sensing, Singapore. http://www.crisp.nus.edu.sg/~acrs2001/pdf/126boehm.pdf
BPSRI. (2009). BADAN PUSAT STATISTIK REPUBLIK INDONESIA Retrieved May 1, 2012, from http://www.bps.go.id/
Couwenberg, J., Dommain, R., & Joosten, H. (2009). Greenhouse gas fluxes from tropical peatlands in south-east Asia. Global Change Biology, 16(6), 1715-1732. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.02016.x
Davis, J., & Haglund, C. (1999). Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) of Fertiliser Production: Fertiliser Products Used in Sweden and Western Europe. Master, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden. (654)
Dewan Nasional Perubahan Iklim, I. (2010). Indonesia's Greenhouse Gas Abatement Cost Curve.
Eggleston, H. S., Buendia, L., Miwa, K., Nagara, T., & Tanabe, K. (2006). 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories: the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme, Institute for Global Environmental Strategies, Kanagawa, Japan.
Fahmuddin Agus, E. R., Tania June, Erni Susanti, Herna Komara,, & Haris Syahbuddin, I. L., and Meine van Noordwijk. (2009). Carbon dioxide emission in land use transitions to plantation. Jurnal Litbang Pertanian, 28(4), 119-126.
GDV. (2011). Natural Rubber Retrieved December 7, 2011, from http://www.tis-gdv.de/tis_e/ware/kautschuk/naturkautschuk/naturkautschuk.htm
George, K. T. (1987). International Commodity Agreements: The Case of Natural Rubber. Social Scientist, 15(4/5), 77-86.
George, V., Britto, I. J., & Sebastian, M. S. (2003). Studies on radiation grafting of methyl methacrylate onto natural rubber for improving modulus of latex film. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 66(5), 367-372. doi: 10.1016/s0969-806x(02)00390-0
Gray, J. A. (2000). Forest Concessions: Experience and Lessons from Countries Around the World. Paper presented at the IUFRO International Symposium, Integrated Management of Neotropical Rain Forests by Industries and Communities, Brasil.
Greenpeace. (2012). Indonesia's rainforests and peatlands are critical for climate, wildlife and forest peoples Retrieved April 17, 2012, from http://www.greenpeace.org/usa/en/campaigns/forests/app/toys/at-stake/
Hooijer, A., Page, S., Canadell, J. G., Silvius, M., Kwadijk, J., Wosten, H., & Jauhiainen, J. (2010). Current and future CO2 emissions from drained peatlands in Southeast Asia. Biogeosciences(7), 1505-1514. doi: 10.5194/bg-7-1515-2010
Hooijer, A., Silvius, M., Wösten, H., & Page, S. (2006). PEAT-CO2, Assessment of CO2 emissions from drained peatlands in SE Asia Delft Hydraulics report Q3943 (2006) (1st ed.).
Huissteden, J. v., Bos, R. v. d., & Alvarez, I. M. (2006). Modelling the effect of water-table management on CO2 and CH4 fluxes from peat soils. Netherlands Journal of Geosciences — Geologie en Mijnbouw, 85(1), 3 - 18.
IPS. (2012). Peatlands and Climate Change Retrieved April 14, 2012, from http://www.peatsociety.org/peatlands-and-peat/peatlands-and-climate-change
Ismail, Z. I. (2010). Top rubber producers won't intervene over prices.
Jawjit, W., Kroeze, C., & Rattanapan, S. (2010). Greenhouse gas emissions from rubber industry in Thailand. Journal of Cleaner Production, 18(5), 403-411. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2009.12.003
Jiputro. (2010). Perawatan dan Pemupukan Kebun Karet Produktif Retrieved December 14, 2011, from http://jiputro.net/perkebunan/perawatan-pemupukan-kebun-karet-produktif
Jungbluth, N. (2011). Petrol, unleaded, at refinery/kg/RER. In E. s. processes (Ed.).
Limited, Y. T. L. (2011). Manufacturing Process Retrieved December 7, 2011, from http://www.yangthonglatex.com/Manufacturing.html
Macdonald, M. (2008). Rencana Induk Rehabilitasi dan Revitalisasi Kawasan Eks-Proyek Pengembangan Lahan Gambut di Kalimantan Tengah. Indonesia: Pemerintah Kalimantan Tengah, Pemerintah Indonesia, Pemerintah Belanda.
Matthews, E. (2002). The State of the Forest: Indonesia. Bogor, Indonesia: Forest Watch Indonesia, and Washington DC: Global Forest Watch.
Menhut. (2005). Rencana Strategis Kementerian Negara/Lembaga (Renstra-KL) Departemen Kehutanan Tahun 2005-2009 Retrieved 3/19, 2012, from http://www.dephut.go.id/INFORMASI/INTAG/Renstra_KL_0509/Renstra_0509.htm
Mosier, A. R., Duxbury, J. M., Freney, J. R., Heinemeyer, O., & Minami, K. (1998). Assesing and mitigating N2O emissions from agricultural soils. Climate Change, 40, 7-38.
Murdiyarso, D., Hergoualc'h, K., & Verchot, L. V. (2010). Opportunities for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in tropical peatlands. PNAS, 107(46), 19655-19660.
Murdiyarso, D., Noordwijk, M. V., Wasrin, U. R., Tomich, T. P., & Gillison, A. N. (2002). Environmental Benefits and Sustainable Land-Use Options in the Jambi Transect, Sumatra. Journal of Vegetation Science, 13(3), 429-438.
Murdiyarso, D., Van Noordwijk, M., Wasrin, U. R., Tomich, T. P., & Gillison, A. N. (2002). Environmental benefits and sustainable land-use options in the Jambi transect, Sumatra. Journal of Vegetation Science, 13(3), 429-438. doi: 10.1111/j.1654-1103.2002.tb02067.x
Nair, K. P. P. (2010). The Agronomy and Economy of Important Tree Crops of the Developing World Elsevier Inc.
Nguyen, T. (1999). Sustainable treatment of rubber latex processing wastewater. PhD, Wangeningen Agricultural University, Wangeningen, The Netherlands.
Nu'man, M., & Yahya, S. (2009). PENGELOLAAN TENAGA KERJA PERKEBUNAN KELAPA SAWIT(Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) DI PERKEBUNAN PT CIPTA FUTURA PLANTATION, MUARA ENIM, SUMATERA SELATAN (A. d. Holtikultura, Trans.). Bogor, Indonesia: Institut Pertanian Bogor.
PCD. (2005). Good Practices on Pollution Prevention and Reduction-Smoked Sheet Rubber Industry. Thailand: MInistry of Natural Resource and Environment.
PCL, T. H. R. (2022). Concentrated Latex Process Retrieved December 7, 2011, from http://www.thaihua.com/v4/en/factory/latex-process.php
PERAMUNE, M. R., & AFS, B. (2007). A Value Chain Assessment of the Rubber Industry in Indonesia. Jakarta, Indonesia: U.S. AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT.
Pinninti, K. R. (2000). Sustainable Development: Economics and Policy. United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.
Prasetijo, D. (2010). Understanding Carbon Capture and Storage Potential in Indonesia: CO2 Emission Sources from Power Sector. Jakarta: PT PLN (Persero).
Putra, E. I., Hayasaka, H., Takahashi, H., & Usup, A. (2008). Recent Peat Fire Activity in the Mega Rice Project Area,
Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Journal of Disaster Research, 3(5), 334-335.
RMA. (2012). Rubber Manufacturers Association Retrieved April 11, 2012, from http://www.rma.org/index.cfm
ROADS, U. S. (1997). Study Compares Older and Younger Pedestrian Walking Speeds. Road Engineering Journal.
Sari, A. P., Maulidya, M., Butarbutar, R. N., Sari, R. E., & Rusmantoro, W. (2007). Executive Summary: Indonesia and Climate Change Working Paper on Current Status and Policies. Indonesia: Department for International Development (DFID) and The World Bank.
Schirmer, J. (2005). Socio-Economic Impacts of Land Use Change to Plantation Forestry: A Review of Current Knowledge and Case Studies of Australian Experience. Australia: School of Resources, Environment and Society - Australian National University, ACT and Cooperative Research Centre for Forestry, Hobart.
Setiyobudi, & Rahmadi, A. (2011). Cara Pemupukan Karet Retrieved November 14, 2011, from http://carabudidaya.com/cara-pemupukan-karet/
Shirmer, J. (2005). Social impacts of land use change.
Smit, H. P., & Vogelvang, E. (1997). Changing interactions on markets for competing commodities: the case of natural rubber and synthetic rubber prices. Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Solomon, S., Qin, D., Manning, M., Chen, Z., Marquis, M., Averyt, K. B., . . . Miller, H. L. (2007). Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007 IPCC AR4 WG1. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
Spielman, M., Dones, R., & Bauer, C. (2007). Life Cycle Inventories of Transport Services (Vol. 14). Dendorf and Villigen, CH: Swiss Centre for LCI, PSI.
Sukses, K. (2011). Beberapa jenis pupuk untuk tanaman karet di masa pertumbuhan serta masa produksi getah karet Retrieved November 17, 2011, from http://kabarsukses.com/beberapa-jenis-pupuk-untuk-tanaman-karet-di-masa-pertumbunn-serta-masa-produksi-getah-karet.html
Susmianto, A., Alamudi, A., Pulston, G., Akbar, A., Prasetyo, A., Wells, A., & Lusiana, B. (2008). CONSOLIDATION REPORT: REDUCING EMISSIONS FROM DEFORESTATION AND FOREST DEGRADATION IN INDONESIA. Indonesia: Ministry of Forestry of the Republic of Indonesia.
Sutanto. (2007). Menyadap Karet Sebagai Atraksi Wisata Retrieved May 3, 2012, from http://groups.yahoo.com/group/tamasyaclub/message/2944
Tampubolon, P. A. ( 2010). Policies and Management Strategies for Rehabilitation of Degraded Peat Swamp Forest. Retrieved from KpSHK - Konsorsium pendukung Sitem Hutan Kerakyatan website: http://en.kpshk.org/index.php/artikel/read/2010/03/25/764/policies-and-management-strategies-for-rehabilitation-of-degraded-peat-swamp-forest.kpshk
Tanaka, S., Gumiri, S., Yustiawati, Kihara, Y., Ardianor, Wulandari, T. S. L., . . . Kurasaki, M. (2010). Responses of Water Quality and Aquatic Community to Water Level Management (CM2-2 group).
United Nations Development Programme Malaysia, S. B. D. (2006). Malaysia's Peat Swamp Forest Conservation and Sustainable Use. Malaysia: the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
Utomo, T. P., Hasanudin, U., & Suroso, E. (2010). Comparative study of low and high-grade crumb rubber processing energy. World Congress on Engineering, III.
Vitt, D. H., Halsey, L. A., Bauer, I. E., & Campbell, C. (2000). Spatial and temporal trends in carbon storage of peatlands of continental western Canada through the Holocene. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 37(5), 683-693. doi: 10.1139/cjes-37-5-683
Wösten, H., Ritzema, H., & Rieley, J. (2010). Assessment of Risks and Vulnerabilities of Tropical Peatland Carbon Pools: Mitigation and Restoration Strategies EU CARBOPEAT Project, Carbon–Climate–Human Interactions in Tropical Peatlands: vulnerabilities, Risks & Mitigation Measures University of Leicester, United Kingdom. (Technical Report 3 ed., pp. 55). Leicester, United Kingdom: University of Leicester, United Kingdom.
Wijaya, R. (2011). An Approach from Social Aspect - Finding Alternatives in Developing Degraded Forests in Central Kalimantan. Taiwan: Master's in sustainable Development Practise, National Cheng Kung University.
Wikipedia. (2012a). Isoprene Wikipedia.
Wikipedia. (2012b). Mega Rice Project (Kalimantan) Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Witoelar, R. (2010). INDONESIA'S GREENHOUSE GAS ABATEMENT COST CURVE: National Council on Climate Change.
Wood, S., & Cowie, A. (2004). A Review of Greenhouse Gas Emission Factors for Fertiliser Production. Cooperative Research Centre for Greenhouse Accounting.
WPRC. (2010). Orangutan Pongo Retrieved May 22, 2012, from http://pin.primate.wisc.edu/factsheets/entry/orangutan/cons
Yee, K. F., Tan, K. T., Abdullah, A. Z., & Lee, K. T. (2009). Life cycle assessment of palm biodiesel: Revealing facts and benefits for sustainability. Applied Energy, 86, S189-S196.
Yulisman, L. (2011). P&G may build oleochemical plant to secure future supply, The Jakarta Post. Retrieved from http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2011/05/24/pg-may-build-oleochemical-plant-secure-future-supply.html

連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top