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研究生:陳昶均
研究生(外文):Chang-ChunChen
論文名稱:兩相式厭氧生質能源程序探討廚餘與狼尾草共醱酵產氫產甲烷之研究
論文名稱(外文):Two-phase Anaerobic Fermentative Process Study on Hydrogen and Methane Production with Combined Feeding of Kitchen Waste and Napiergrass
指導教授:鄭幸雄鄭幸雄引用關係
指導教授(外文):Sheng-Shung Cheng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:環境工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:168
中文關鍵詞:兩相式程序廚餘狼尾草生質能源油脂
外文關鍵詞:two-phase processkitchen wastenapiergrassbioenergylipid
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:3
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  • 下載下載:79
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現代社會對於石化資源的需求日益增加,但其消耗量遠遠超過其生成之速度,在可預見的未來人類勢必面臨石化能源短缺的問題。再者由於石化燃料的使用,使得二氧化碳過量排放而造成溫室效應逐年加劇,被視為是全球氣候變遷的主因。台灣原本主要的化石能源有90%以上皆是仰賴進口,6%則是核能原料,如今在能源短缺和永續發展的雙重議題下,更有開發替代性再生能源的迫切性及必要性。而本島地區氣候溫熱潮濕,適合生質作物、各種動植物和微生物的多樣性持續生長,發展生質能源程序有其前瞻性以及先天優勢存在。此外我國人口密集,易於推動都市有機廢棄物集中清運,於2011年為止,台灣的廚餘日回收量可達2,200噸,佔人口普及率之三分之一,尚有向上成長的空間,若能妥善利用廚餘此一富含有機碳之有機廢棄物,可作為生質能源程序中充足的物料來源。
本研究中採用廚餘以及狼尾草作為兩相式厭氧醱酵程序之基質物料,,藉此達到生質氫氣與甲烷的回收和有機廢棄物的再利用。廚餘屬於高濃度有機固體廢棄物,(總COD濃度可達313.8 g/L,揮發性固體物濃度約152 g/L),含水率則約80%,有機成分組成為油脂最多,碳水化合物居次,蛋白質最末,分別占總COD之34.5%、30%,以及24.7%。此外由於台灣氣候溼熱,造成廚餘在一天清運過程中即有部分被微生物酸化水解,由其特性分析可監測到揮發酸(主要產物為乳酸,濃度約9,000 mg/L,乙酸次之,約2,000 mg/L)和氨氮(約110 mg N/L)的生成。狼尾草則是台灣主要牧草和野生雜草之一,碳水化合物佔了總乾重之55%,若能被微生物有效水解其木質纖維結構則是相當適合作為能源作物的物種。
為了提升微生物對於複合基質的利用效率,於本研究採用兩階段式的厭氧暗醱酵程序,且操作在高溫55oC環境下。第一段以三組CSTR並聯操作為水解酸化槽之比較試驗,並提供高體積負荷使其併有氫氣回收之效益,第二段則承接酸化槽出流液,以蛋形消化槽之形式串聯操作,達到生質甲烷的生成並穩定有機物。酸化產氫槽三槽之HRT皆為8天,負荷分別控制在10、15以及20 g COD/L-day,在操作344天後,基質部分有90%以上的碳水化合物轉化效率,VSS則維持約30%之去除率,纖維素轉化率較不明顯,僅有20%。產氫速率方面,三槽分別可維持在0.9、1.2和1.0 L H2/L-day,氫氣比例45%。而在甲烷消化槽方面,最終穩定操作時,HRT為30天,體積負荷為3.5 g COD/L-day,有80%之COD去除率和70%之VSS轉化率,其中對於油脂和纖維素亦具90%的轉換效率。甲烷生成方面則有平均產氣速率1.0 L CH4/L-day以及甲烷比例70%之產氣表現。

In moder society, the request of fossil resource increases more and more with each passing day. However, the consumption of fossil fuels is quite larger than its formation. In the future human beings will face the problem of fossil fuel shortage. Moreover, the overemission of CO2 by using fossil fuel is thought to be one of the reasons of global warning which leads to climate change. In Taiwan, over 90 % of energy supply comes from import of fossil fuel, and 6 % is from nuclear energy. In consideration of energy shortage and sustainable development, it is necessary to exploit renewable energy to take the place of fossil energy. The innate advantages of developing bioenergy in Taiwan include the hot and humid climate, which is beneficial for the growth of energy crops, and also the abundant microbial diversity. In addition, the recycle of kitchen waste achieved to 2,300 tons per day in 2011. Kitchen waste is a kind of municipal wastes rich in organic matters, which is considerable feedstock for bioenergy process.
In this study, kitchen waste and napiergrass are applied as feedstocks of two-phase anaerobic process. The anaerobic process not only recycles renewable enrgy in form of biohydrogen and biomethane, but also the organic wastes can be stabilized and reutilized. Kitchen waste contains high concentration of COD (313.8 g/L) and TVS (152 g/L). The moisture is about 80 %. The main organic part are lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins. Besides, VFAs and ammonium are detected in the kitchen waste as well. The major part of VFAs is lactic acid (about 9,000 mg/L), and second one is acetic acid (about 2,000 mg/L). Napiergrass is the main pasture in Taiwan. The total carbohydrate is about 55 % in one gram of napiergrass. If the lignocellulosic structure can be hydrolyzed well by microorganisms, napiergrass is potential to be applied in bioenergy process.
In order to promote the utilization of complex substrate, two-phase anaerobic fermentation process was applied in this study. In the acid phase, three CSTRs were operated to hydrolyze and acidify the original substrate, and hydrogen produced will be collected and recycled. In the methane phase, an egg-shaped digester treated the fermentative effluent of acid phase.Methane production was collected and organic matter was stabilized.
The HRT of acid phase were 8 days, and the VLR were 10, 15 and 20 g COD/L-day, respectively. After operating 344 days, the conversion of carbohydrate were higher than 90 %, the removal of VSS were about 30, and the conversion of cellulose were 20 %. Hydrogen production rate were 0.9, 1.2 and 1.0 L H2/L-day, and hydrogen percentage was 45 %. The HRT of methane phase was 30 days, and the VLR was 3.5 g COD/L-day. The conversion of COD and VSS were 80 % and 70 %, respectively. It is worth mentioning that the digester gave high performance of degrading cellulose and lipis. The conversion rate of lipid and cellulose were both 90 %. The average methane production rate was 1.0 L CH4/L-day, and the methane percentage was 70 %.

摘要 I
Abstract III
誌謝 V
目錄 IX
表目錄 XI
圖目錄 XIII
第一章 前言 1
第二章 文獻回顧 3
2-1. 全球能源使用趨勢與潔淨再生能源之發展現況 3
2-2. 台灣廚餘回收與再利用之現況 7
2-3. 狼尾草作為能源作物之潛力與優勢 11
2-4. 厭氧生物醱酵程序發展生質能源 13
2-4-1. 厭氧有機物消化程序 13
2-4-2. 兩相式厭氧產氫產甲烷程序 14
2-4-3. 澱粉之結構特性與水解機制 16
2-4-4. 纖維素生質物之結構特性與水解機制 20
2-4-5. 蛋白質之厭氧水解與醱酵機制 24
2-4-6. 脂質厭氧水解與代謝機制 26
2-4-7. 厭氧產氫代謝機制 34
2-4-8. 微生物利用乳酸及乙酸共降解之產氫研究 37
2-4-9. 厭氧產甲烷代謝機制 39
2-5. 分子生物技術應用於厭氧醱酵微生物族群之探討 41
2-6. 厭氧醱酵程序中蛋形消化槽之設計與實際運用 46
第三章 研究方法與材料 51
3-1. I-CSTR高溫水解酸化反應器與蛋型消化槽 51
3-2. 水質與氣體成分分析項目與儀器 55
3-3. 生化甲烷潛能試驗 58
3-4. 掃描式電子顯微鏡 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) 61
3-5. 分子生物檢測技術 62
第四章 結果與討論 69
4-1. 台灣廚餘與狼尾草之特性分析 69
4-1-1. 台南市廚餘之特性分析 69
4-1-2. 狼尾草之特性分析 75
4-2. 厭氧醱酵微生物族群之特性分析 77
4-3. 高溫水解酸化槽與厭氧蛋形消化槽之操作與試程功能探討 82
4-3-1. 高溫水解酸化產氫槽之操作策略 83
4-3-2. 高溫水解酸化產氫槽之功能表現評估 85
4-3-3. 高溫蛋形厭氧消化槽之操作策略 111
4-3-4. 高溫蛋形厭氧消化槽之功能表現評估 113
4-4. 厭氧醱酵之微生物反應動力與基質轉化表現之探討 128
4-5. 厭氧醱酵微生物族群結構之探討 136
4-5-1. 以掃描式電子顯微鏡 (SEM) 觀察兩相式程序中菌相型態 136
4-5-2. 16S rRNA基因選殖實驗(clone library) 141
4-5-3. 分子生物技術T-RFLP探討厭氧醱酵菌群之族群變化 150
第五章 結論與建議 157
5-1. 結論 157
5-2. 建議 159
第六章 參考文獻 160

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