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研究生:曾靖樺
研究生(外文):Jing-HuaTzeng
論文名稱:水中數種藍綠菌與藻類在氯胺消毒程序中亞硝基二甲胺之生成潛能研究
論文名稱(外文):Formation Potential of N-nitrosodimethylamine for Several Algae and Cyanobacteria during Chloramination
指導教授:林財富林財富引用關係
指導教授(外文):Tsair-Fuh Lin
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:環境工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:100
中文關鍵詞:藍綠菌藻類胺基酸氯胺消毒亞硝基二甲胺生成潛能
外文關鍵詞:AlgaeAmino AcidChloraminationCyanobacteriaFomration PotentialN-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:2
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  • 下載下載:43
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
亞硝基二甲胺 (N-nitrosodimethylamine, NDMA) 於西元1989年首度於飲用水處理系統中被發現,由於具有高度致癌風險,成為國際關注之新興含氮消毒副產物。優養化原水含有高濃度藍綠菌/藻類存在,其細胞體與代謝物會藉由生物代謝與固氮作用增加天然水之溶解性有機氮 (Dissolved organic nitrogen, DON),這些DON可能會在消毒過程中與氯/氯胺作用產生NDMA,造成水質安全疑慮。因此,本研究探討原水中所含藍綠菌/藻類之細胞體與代謝物的NDMA生成潛能關係,最後並以胺基酸模擬DON,建立胺基酸與NDMA生成潛能關係。

本研究利用一氯胺作為氧化劑,改變不同氧化條件 (氧化劑接觸反應時間、氧化劑濃度、藻體細胞數、胺基酸溶液pH值、氯氮比例、含氮濃度及胺基酸種類),氧化數種水中常見之藍綠菌與藻類、主要胺基酸及天然水庫原水,瞭解水體經氯胺消毒過程中亞硝基二甲胺 (NDMA) 之生成潛能。並探討不同藍綠菌與藻類、胺基酸種類與天然水體之相關性與NDMA生成潛能推估之應用性。

結果顯示,藍綠菌 (柱孢藻、微囊藻、魚腥藻及針形藻) 與藻類 (小球藻與菱形藻) 皆為細胞體較代謝物具有較高之NDMA生成潛能。以菱形藻藻體之NDMA生成量為代謝物之5.3倍,差異最大,柱孢藻則次之。且隨氧化劑接觸反應時間、氧化劑量與細胞數量升高NDMA生成潛能增加。於含氮濃度0.05 mM胺基酸溶液氧化實驗中,一氯胺濃度為2.0 mM,僅絲胺酸 (Serine) 於反應後沒有測得NDMA,天冬胺酸 (Aspartic acid) 則生成最高量,達92.8 ng/L。研究中後續利用氧化細胞懸浮液與EOM之NDMA生成量,計算得藍綠菌/藻類細胞NDMA生成潛能、與天然水中細胞種類和數量,進一步推估天然水NDMA生成潛能。當水體屬優養程度時,則其計算值與實驗值相近;然當水體為普養程度時,則以直接氧化細胞體獲得之NDMA生成潛能,較接近水體NDMA生成潛能。

此研究結果有利於瞭解不同藍綠菌與藻類之NDMA生成潛能和生成機制探討,且可評估現行飲用水之藍綠菌相關警戒規範是否亦適用於NDMA生成潛能警戒,以保障飲用水水質安全。

N-nitrosamines have become an important issue in drinking water science since they were identified as disinfection by- products (DBPs) in chloraminated waters. N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is the most frequently detected member of nitrosamines in drinking water. The risk that the chemical poses to consumer health seems to be much higher than that from chlorinated DBPs. Although the first report that documented the presence of NDMA in water appeared in the 1970s. NDMA was widely discovered in many finishd waters at the beginning of the 21st centry. Although the monitoring and formation potential of NDMA has been extensively studied, the formation potential of cyanobacteria during chloramination has never been systematically investigated. In this study, formation potential of NDMA during chloramination of two algae, four cyanobacteria and two cyanobacteria-laden reservoir waters is investigated. In addition, chloramination of 17 amino acids were also studid for the formation potential of NDMA.
Experimental results indicated that NDMA formed from chloramination of cyanobacteria and algae cells is more than that from chloramination with extracellular organic matter associated with cyanobacteria and algae. In the system, higher oxidant dose, longer contact time, and more cell numbers would produce more NDMA. For chloramination of amino acid, NDMA was detected for almost all the cases, with highest concentration for aspartic acid (92.8 ng/L). The results of cyanobacteria and algae cells were linked to the formation protential for selected cyanobacteria-laden reservoir waters, through calculation of cell number in cyanobacteria-laden reservoir waters and formation protential of dominant species. The calculated results for NDMA formation are comparable with those from experiments, indicating that cyanobacteria and algae cells are important precursors of NDMA. The methodology developed may be used to estimate the risk associated with NDMA for the water with significant amounts of cyanobacteria and algae.

摘要 I
Abstract III
誌謝 V
目錄 VII
表目錄 XI
圖目錄 XII

第一章 前言 1
1.1 研究緣起 1
1.2 研究目的 2
第二章 文獻回顧 3
2.1 消毒副產物 3
2.1.1 含碳消毒副產物 3
2.1.2 新興含氮消毒副產物 5
2.2 亞硝基二甲胺 6
2.2.1 NDMA物化特性 9
2.2.2 NDMA形成機制 10
2.2.3 NDMA管制標準 13
2.3 天然有機氮源 14
2.3.1 藍綠菌與藻類 15
2.3.2 胺基酸 18
2.3.3 有機氮源管制 20
第三章 實驗材料與方法 21
3.1 藍綠菌與藻類培養 22
3.1.1 藍綠菌與藻類來源 22
3.1.2 培養方法 24
3.2 細胞計數與生物體積量測 26
3.2.1 細胞計數方法 26
3.2.2 細胞生物體積計算 29
3.3 溶解性有機氮分析 30
3.4 NDMA生成潛能實驗 33
3.4.1 一氯胺配製 33
3.4.2 實驗前置準備 35
3.4.2.1 藍綠菌與藻類 35
3.4.2.2 胺基酸溶液 36
3.4.2.3 天然水 37
3.4.3 實驗步驟 39
3.5 NDMA分析 43
第四章 結果與討論 47
4.1 藍綠菌與藻類生成NDMA潛能影響 47
4.1.1 氧化劑接觸反應時間 47
4.1.2 氧化劑濃度 51
4.1.3 細胞體數目 60
4.2 藍綠菌與藻類生成NDMA剖析與應用 65
4.2.1 細胞單位生物體積 65
4.2.2 藍綠菌與藻類NDMA生成潛能剖析 66
4.2.3 氮類物質和DON含量與NDMA生成潛能剖析 71
4.2.4 天然水NDMA生成潛能 72
4.2.5 現行原水規範與NDMA生成潛能 74
4.3 胺基酸生成NDMA潛能影響 78
4.3.1 氧化劑接觸反應時間 78
4.3.2 溶液pH值 80
4.3.3 氯/氮比例 83
4.3.4 胺基酸種類與NDMA生成潛能關係 86
4.4 胺基酸 NDMA生成剖析與應用 89
4.4.1 細胞體胺基酸組成與NDMA生成潛能 89
4.4.2 天然水胺基酸組成NDMA生成潛能 92
第五章 結論與建議 93
5.1 結論 93
5.2 建議 94
參考文獻 95
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