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論文名稱(外文):Monitoring and Removal of Malodorous Compounds in Rivers Examplified by Indole and Skatole
指導教授(外文):Tsair-Fuh Lin
外文關鍵詞:Flavor Profile Analysis(FPA)solid phase microextration (SPME)gas chromatograph and mass spectrometry detector (GC/MSD)Mass TransferHydrogen peroxide
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本研究旨在探討河川中主要臭味物質之監測及移除。研究中首先建立臭味物質之分析技術,包括強制選擇分析法找出主要臭味物質之嗅覺閾值,並使用嗅覺層次分析法(Flavor Profile Analysis, FPA)對水樣的臭味種類及強度進行初步的鑑定,再利用氣相質譜儀(Gas Chromatograph and Mass Spectrometry Detector, GC/MSD)搭配固相微萃取法(Solid Phase Microextration, SPME)前處理對臭味物質做更進一步的定性與定量。
研究中篩選出兩種河川中常見的惡臭味物質,吲哚(Indole)與糞臭素(Skatole)均為畜牧污水中代表性臭味物質。後續並利用感官與化學分析法調查台灣南部地區的鹽水溪與二仁溪,根據分布狀況及其造成之臭味問題,確立河川中臭味熱區(Hot Spots)。並選定熱區之一二仁溪竹園橋作為研究對象,利用質量平衡模式來預測惡臭味物質於承受水體自上游到下游之中之濃度變化及其臭味強度改善狀況,模擬模式中需要的各種降解機制的速率常數,其中包括光照降解、生物降解及揮發作用,本研究對這些過程進行量化的一些實驗結果,並用以預測自竹園橋而下之臭味濃度變化並加以採樣驗證預測結果。臭味物質之損失過程探討有利於預測臭味及管理污水處理等問題,但是河川自淨能力有限且耗時長。
本研究亦利用類芬頓(Fenton-like)之化學處理方法對環境水樣進行氧化試驗。日照催化過氧化氫氧化二種惡臭味物質,於日照時間5小時內,過氧化氫濃度100 mg/L之操作條件下竹園橋水樣中吲哚與糞臭素可去除吲哚與糞臭素約79%與89%(揮發作用與氧化作用),可作為改善臭味問題方法之參考。
This study focused on the fate and control of two malodorous compounds, indole and skatole, in two Taiwan’s rivers. The chemicals are important odour components in the water polluted by livestock wastewater. Two sensory methods, flavor profile analysis (FPA) and force-choice ascending concentration series method of limits (FCM), were used to characterize the odour types and intensities, and odour threshold concentrations, respectivelty. An instrumental method, solid phase microextration (SPME) coupled with gas chromatograph and mass spectrometry detector(GC/MSD), was employed to quantify the odourants.
Two major rivers, Yenshui and Erren Rivers, are chosen as representative rivers for this study. Using the sensory methods, hot spots of odour problems were first identified for the two rivers. The concentrations of the odorants and intensity of malodours were also characterized. One of the hot spots for malodour, Chu-Yen Bridge in Erren River, was selected for further analysis of fate of odorants in the river. Three loss processes for the targeted odorants, including photo degradation, biodegradation and volatilization, were integrated into a mass balance model for the characterization of the odorants in the river. The three processes were first determined in the laboratory for their rate constants. Then, the processes were integrated into the model for the comparison of the data collected in the river section. Although not perfectly matched with the data collected, the models may give insight into the transport processes of the odorants in the river.
To understand the treatability of the odorants, hydrogen peroxide catalyzed with sunlight was also studied. Hydrogen peroxide at 100 mg/L under sunlight condition the was able to degrade indole and skatole by 79% and 89%, repectively. This may suggest that this method is able to reduce the odor intensity, if the two compounds are responsible for the malodors in river.

摘要 I
Abstract III
誌謝 V
目錄 VII
表目錄 XI
圖目錄 XIII
第一章 前言 1
1-1 研究緣起 1
1-2 研究目的 2
第二章 文獻回顧 3
2-1 水中臭味分類 3
2-1-1 沼澤味/糞便味/臭水溝味/硫味 6
2-1-2 魚腥味 8
2-1-3 藥味 9
2-1-4 溶劑/烴類化合物 9
2-2 水中臭味成因 10
2-2-1 水中臭味的天然成因 10
2-2-2 水中臭味的人為成因 15
2-2-3 畜牧污染 16
2-2-3-1 畜牧污水水質狀況 16
2-2-3-2 畜牧污水中常見臭味物質 17
2-3 臭味物質的化學分析法 20
2-3-1 固相微萃取法 20
2-4 臭味物質的官能評價法 22
2-4-1 初嗅數法 22
2-4-2 強制選擇臭味閾值分析法 22
2-4-3 嗅覺層次分析法 23
2-5 臭味物質水中降解機制 25
2-5-1 光照降解 25
2-5-2 生物降解 27
2-5-3 揮發作用 28
2-6 二仁溪與鹽水溪的背景調查 34
2-6-1 二仁溪污染來源 34
2-6-2 鹽水溪污染來源 35
2-7過氧化氫 37
2-7-1過氧化氫的物理化學特性 37
2-7-2過氧化氫分解原理 38
2-7-3過氧化氫分解影響因素 39
第三章 實驗設備與方法 41
3-1臭味物質的化學分析方法 42
3-1-1 固相微萃取法 42
3-2 臭味物質的官能評價方法 45
3-2-1 嗅覺層次分析法 45
3-2-2 強制選擇臭味閾值分析法 49
3-3 臭味物質降解模式探討 50
3-3-1 光照降解 50
3-3-2 生物降解 52
3-4 過氧化氫處理惡臭味物質 53
第四章 結果與討論 55
4-1惡臭味物質分析方法 55
4-1-1 感官分析方法結果 55
4-1-2 化學分析方法結果 58
4-2台灣河川惡臭味物質調查結果 59
4-2-1 鹽水溪臭味問題 59
4-2-2 二仁溪臭味問題 64
4-3惡臭味物質降解 69
4-3-1 光照降解 69
4-3-2 生物降解 75
4-3-3 揮發作用 79
4-4二仁溪自體淨化模式 82
4-4-1 自淨模式預估結果及驗證 82
4-4-2 惡臭味物質降解後臭味強度探討 88
4-5 過氧化氫處理臭味物質結果 91
4-5-1 過氧化氫氧化去離子水中惡臭味物質 91
4-5-2 過氧化氫氧化竹園橋原水中惡臭味物質 95
4-5-3過氧化氫氧化竹園橋原水中惡臭味物質動力模式探討 99
第五章 結論與建議 103
5-1結論 103
5-2建議 104
參考文獻 105

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