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研究生:莊盛智
研究生(外文):Sheng-JhinJhuang
論文名稱:實地量測廢氣燃燒塔之處理效率及操作參數探討
論文名稱(外文):In-situ Measurement of the Destruction Efficiency of NMHC by Flare
指導教授:吳義林
指導教授(外文):Yee-Lin Wu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:環境工程學系碩博士班
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2012
畢業學年度:100
語文別:中文
論文頁數:93
中文關鍵詞:廢氣燃燒塔繫留氣球燃燒效率破壞效率
外文關鍵詞:FlareBalloon-brone Sampling SystemCombustion EfficiencyDestruction Efficiency
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近年來隨著工業發展台灣石化、煉油產業也隨之蓬勃發展,也隨著環保意識的高漲,對於其產業所排放之揮發性有機氣體對環境及人體之相關研究也日益增加, TEDS7.0中顯示,國內一年排放NMHC約為77萬公噸/每年,點源排放約占其1/3,石化產業在提煉、運輸、製造等過程中為主要產生VOCs排放之因素。
本研究所探討之廢氣燃燒塔為可能排放揮發性有機氣體設備之一,燃燒塔是石化相關產業相當常見之緊急處理設備,但由於燃燒塔為開放式燃燒裝置可能因燃燒不完全導致VOCs排放至大氣環境中。本研究目的為實地量測廢氣燃燒塔並推估其防治效率,利用繫留氣球載具系統搭載分析儀器直接量測燃燒塔之尾氣,量測CO2、CO、NMHC及BC為主,並以碳原子及氧原子計算空氣稀釋比例進而推估出燃燒效率及破壞效率。量測兩廠址燃燒塔共8根次,其中僅6根次判定為有效量測結果,其中燃燒塔A為3根次,燃燒塔B為3根次,並收集量測時段之蒸氣量、廢氣量、熱值、成分組成等操作資料。
研究結果顯示各次稀釋比例計算結果皆達98%以上,顯示空氣稀釋影響明顯。而燃燒塔A三次平均燃燒效率分別為88.4%、97.3%及99.9%,破壞效率為88.4%、97.3%及99.9%,燃燒塔B燃燒效率及破壞效率皆為99.9%,而因量測數據CO或NMHC大部分測值為ND導致燃燒效率及破壞效率相同,NMHC濃度過低效率趨近於100%。
效率與操作參數進行探討發現效率與風速並無明顯趨勢,在2 m/s及10 m/s之間之效率分布96%~99.9%範圍中。而不同蒸氣廢氣重量比操作情形下,蒸氣廢氣重量比愈高時效率越佳,但與文獻比較結果卻呈相反之趨勢,導致效率過低可能原因為蒸氣閥未開啟所導致。熱值部分則計算Combustion Zone Gas Net Heat Value方式與效率進行探討,結果顯示6根次熱值皆達170 BTU/scf以上,與文獻中相同範圍之效率分布情形相似。

A flare is a gas combustion device used to burn hydrocarbons of waste gases in industrial plants such as petroleum refineries, chemical plants, natural gas processing plants as well as at oil production sites. In Taiwan, flares are common equipment and most of plants used in normality. Many studies flares have been revealed that it is the major emission sources in stationary sources of VOCs. If flares stalled or efficiency droped, the VOCs were emitted to ambient directly.
This study’s purpose is to estimate the contral efficiencies of flare and discuss with operating conditions. Using balloon-borne sampling system to measure CO2, CO, NMHC and BC concentration in plume of flare. The plume position was decided by total carbon concentration, which is sum of CO2, CO, NMHC and BC concentration, and calculated the combustion efficiency and destruction efficiency by CO2, CO, NMHC and BC.
Collected vent gas flow rate, steam flow rate, vent gas composition, and LHV of flares in sampling time. There are two flares have been measured in central Taiwan. Flare A the combustion and destruction coefficiency of is 95.2% ± 0.5 and flare B is 99.9% ± 0. Many studies have revealed that operation condition and wind speed have effect on efficiency of flare. The result of this study, the distribution of combustion efficiency has range of 96% ~ 99.9% between 2 m/s to 10 m/s wind speed. Combustion efficiency and wind speed were not significant correlation. The result of steam to vent gas ratio and efficiency is positive correlation but in TCEQ report is opposite. When Steam to vent gas ratio are more than 100% ,the efficiency are higher than 99%. Using Combusion zone gas net heat value to investigate the correlation between efficiency and LHV. The CZGNHV of two flares are higher than 170 BTU/scf, the XY chart of efficiency and CZGNHV is the same as TCEQ report.

1、 前言 1
1.1、 研究背景 1
1.2、 研究目的 2
1.3、 研究架構 3
2、 文獻回顧 4
2.1、 廢氣燃燒塔 4
2.1.1、 廢氣燃燒塔架構與種類 4
2.1.2、 蒸氣補助式燃燒塔 7
2.1.3、 廢氣燃燒塔衍生問題 8
2.2、 燃燒塔使用概況及法規 9
2.2.1、 燃燒塔使用概況 9
2.2.2、 廢氣燃燒塔法規 10
2.3、 國內外燃燒塔量測情形 11
2.3.1、 燃燒塔量測方法 11
2.3.2、 國外燃燒塔效率量測 14
2.3.3、 國內燃燒塔效率量測 15
2.4、 影響效率之參數 16
2.4.1、 側風風速 16
2.4.2、 蒸氣量及廢氣量重量比率 19
2.4.3、 熱值 20
3、 研究方法 26
3.1、 量測目標 26
3.1.1、 A廠址 26
3.1.2、 B廠址 27
3.1.3、 量測時間 28
3.2、 量測燃燒塔尾氣及進流濃度方法 29
3.2.1、 載具系統 29
3.2.2、 分析儀篩選原則 31
3.2.3、 實地量測步驟 33
3.3、 燃燒效率及破壞效率計算方式 34
3.3.1、 空氣稀釋比例計算 34
3.3.2、 效率計算 36
4、 結果與討論 38
4.1、 燃燒塔操作情形 38
4.1.2、 蒸氣量及廢氣量 39
4.1.2.1、 A廠址 39
4.1.2.2、 B廠址 40
4.1.3、 廢氣組成及熱值 41
4.1.4、 母火資料 42
4.2、 量測結果 51
4.2.1、 周界條件 51
4.2.2、 進流量測結果 54
4.2.3、 汙染物量測結果 57
4.3、 煙流範圍 63
4.3.1、 燃燒塔A 63
4.3.2、 燃燒塔B 64
4.4、 稀釋比例及處理效率 69
4.4.1、 稀釋比例 71
4.4.2、 燃燒效率及破壞效率 72
4.4.2.1、 燃燒塔A 73
4.4.2.2、 燃燒塔B 73
4.5、 效率與參數比較 77
4.5.1、 煙流時段燃燒塔操作情形及風速 77
4.5.2、 風速及出口流速 79
4.5.3、 蒸氣廢氣重量比 81
4.5.4、 熱值 82
5、 結論與建議 86
5.1、 結論 86
5.2、 建議 88
6、 參考文獻 89

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